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■■!■■ The Magazine For Apple HI Owners and Users ■■■■■ 

/// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// /// 

Volume 4, Number 4 


Command Module 

ON THREE Presents. - . 

LAZARUS /// $49.95 

File Recovery System pi^s $2 s/h 

A wrong keystroke can lose hours of work 

The correct keystroke with iMzarus /// can undelete those 

lost files. Need we say more? 

Not copy-protected— Installs easily on Selector ///, Catalyst 

lUse Draw ON /// directly 
with Apple //e mouse 
and interface, joystick, 
keyboard, or Apple 
Graphics Tablet 
(Graphics Tablet version 
$50 additional) 

iDraw ON /// can 
spruce up dull graphs 
with its many typefaces 
or by creating fancy 
borders and textured 

■Draw ON /// comes 
complete with easy to 
follow menus, a durable 
spiral-bound instruc- 

tion manual and tutorial, 
keypad overlay, and 
unprotected diskettes 
which will install on 
Selector /// or Catalyst 
I Draw ON /// is compat- 
ible with all monochrome 
monitors as well as 
NTSC (standard) and 
RGB (hi-res) color 
Multiple help screens 

User-adjustable grids 

Zoom in for detailed 

Rubber-banding of lines 

ON THR€€ Presents . . . 

Drouj ON /// 

graphics tool arcr designed! 

$179 . . .plus $5 shipping and handling 

What? A computer graphics program that is powerful and easy to use, has the resources of a complete graphics art studio, 
creates professional-quality charts and diagrams, complex illustrations and original artwork, letterheads, slides and tables 
for presentation? Don't you believe iti ... unless you're talking about Draw ON ///'', from ON THREE! 

Draw ON /// transforms your Apple /// into a drafting table, easel and sketch pad, all rolled into one, like MacRaInt with 
color. Computer Aided Design (CAD) applications such as circuit layouts and flowcharts are chllds play for Draw ON ///- 

Draw ON /// comes with a wide selection of text fonts and objects which can be supplemented with those of your own 
design. Mix and match with drawings and charts, using Draw ON ///'s powerful cut and paste facility. You can use Draw 
ON ///'s many fonts to label your own drawings as well as those in other applications, and you can pick up objects, 
expand, shrink, rotate, invert, and texture. 

THE Graphics Tq.c5"l for the ^ y/^ ^ 


You can print Draw 
ON ///screens with all 
of these popular printers-. 

plus, with a PKASO/ 
PKASO-U interface: 

• Centronics 

• Apple DMP 

•IDS Prism, Color Prism* 

• Epson FX, MX, RX 



• Okidata 

• Imaged riter 

• . . . and others 

• ProWrit^r 

*reo\mred to print color drawings 

Specify printer and interface 
when ordering 

Draw ON /// requires 256K minimum memory 


Bob Consorti 


Lynne Denicola 


Joseph Consorti 

Janet Schanz 

Technical Support: 

Terry McNeese 

Tim Harrington 

Order Department: 

(800) 443-8877 (toll-free) 
(800) 331 -141 8 (in California) 
Technical Questions: 



Ojai Printing & Publishing 
Ojai, California 

ON THREE -The Reference Source for the 
Apple /// is published monthly by ON THREE, 
4478 Market Street. Suite 701, Ventura, CA 
93003 (P.O. Box 3825, Ventura, CA 93006). 
For a copy of author guidelines, send a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope to the 
above address. Current page rate is $25 per 
printed page. 

Return postage must accompany all submitted 
manuscripts, diskettes and drawings if they are 
to be returned. All manuscripts longer than 
500 words or program listings longer than one- 
half page must be accompanied oy a diskette 
to be considered. No responsibility can be 
assumed for unsolicited materials. All letters 
received by ON THREE unless specifically 
marked to the contrary will be considered as 
unconditionally assigned for publication and 
are subject to ON THREES right to edit and 
comment editorially. Your full address will be 
published on/y when specifically requested. 

Subscription information: 
U.S.: $40 for 12 issues. First Class service, 
$1 2 additional. 
Foreign subscription information: 
Canada. Mexico, APO, FPO: $20 additional, 

$60 total. 
S. America, Europe: $24 additional, $64 total. 
Pac. Islands, Asia. Australia. Mid-East: $29 
additional, $69 total. 

Back issues: 
Available for $5 each. Please indicate issues 
Postage for ON THREE products: 
U.S.: listed on enclosed product price sheet. 
Canada and Mexico: double listed U.S. 

Outside North America: triple listed U.S. 

All funds n}ust be remitted in U.S. dollars 
drawn on a U.S. bank or funds in your native 
currency at the current exchange rate drawn 
on a bank in your country. Group purchases 
must have one common mailing address. 
Please contact ON THREE at the above 
address for information on current volume 
pricing and terms. 

ON THREE is a registered trademark of ON 
THREE Inc. Apple, Apple II, Apple II plus, 
Apple llGS. Apple ///, Apple ///plus, Applesoft, 
/\pple Business Basic, Disk II, Disk ///, UniDisk, 
Lisa, LisaDraw. Macintosh, MacPaint, Mac- 
Write and Profile are registered trademarks of 
Apple Computer, Inc. Micro-Sci and Gameport 
/// are registered trademarks of Stand um 
Controls, Inc. Selector /// is a registered trade- 
mark of Sabre Software, Inc. ON THREE 
O'clock, Lazarus ///, Draw ON ///, Desktop Man- 
ager and ONTIME are registered trademarks 
of ON THREE, Inc. 

Opinions expressed in this magazine are 
those of individual authors and staff and not 
necessarily those of ON THREE. 

Copyright (c) 1 987 by OA/ THREE. 
(ISSN 0889-6429) All rights reserved. 



Table of Contents 


/// /// /// 

Volume 4, No. 4 

April, 1987 


The Beginning /// 

Richard and Lavona Rann 
This artilce will help those of 
you whose ///'s have been 
haunted by mysterious 
system failures. 

/// Telecommunications 
Rodney Hendricks 

According to this column, 
using your /// to talk to other 
computer operators is not as 
difficult as you may think. 

Text File Manager 

Cevin Soling 

A program which will allow 
anyone not owning the Desk- 
top Manager to catalog 
text files from within BASIC. 


Printer Upgrade 15 

Earl T. Brelje 

If you don't want to invest 
in a new printer to replace your 
present Epson MX, then con- 
sider the advice given here. 

PKASO/U Command Module 18 

Earl T. Brelje 

Use the skeleton of this 
module to create an easy- 
to-use listing of your favorite 
program's control commands. 

Copy /// 25 

Edward N. Gooding, Sr. 
This reviews the one-pass 
copying program Copy/// 
and tells you how to make 
it run under Catalyst. 



Lynne Denicola 


One, Two, /// Forum 


De Classifieds 


ON THREE Price List 



Richard and Lavona Rann 


Call Three: Hot Line and 
User Groups 


ON: The Cover 

This month's cover proves that with some imagination and the help of a LaserWriter 
printer, anything is possible. 

/// E-Z Pieces 

This program is the Apple /// version of the 
Apple II hit known as AppleWorks. It combines 
a word processor, data base and spread sheet in 
one integrated program. All sections use 
similar commands and easy-to-follow pop-up 

The spread sheet, while not as powerful as 
Advanced VisiCalc, is much faster. For example, 
loading and saving files is 20 to 30 times faster. 
Even recalculation times are much quicker. And 
you can access your existing VisiCalc or DIF 
files, eliminating the need to re-type. Up to 999 
rows and 127 columns are available. 

The data base section is just like the 
popular QuickFile ///, but better. /// E-Z 
Pieces' Data Base can handle as many as 3,000 
records per file and double the number of fields 
per record. Sophisticated record selection, 
sorting and printing combined with lightning 
fast sorts and searches make this portion of /// 
E-Z Pieces valuable. 

The word processor rivals programs like 
AppleWriter and Word Juggler in speed and 
ease of use. Advanced options such as the 
ability to cut and paste information between 
data base, spread sheet and word processor 
make the program a must for all /// owners. 

It is available for $135.00 plus $3.50 s/h. 


Lynne Denicola 

III E-Z Pieces Upgrade Update 

As I'm sure by now all of you are aware, ON THREE recently 
attempted to gather enough names to persuade Robert Lissner to 
produce an update to his world-famous program, /// E-Z Pieces, 
and make it available to Apple /// owners and users. Unfortu- 
nately, this attempt has been disappointingly unsuccessful. 

Many months ago, ON THREE contacted Lissner and asked him 
to produce an update for /// E-Z Pieces which would elevate this 
/// program to the level of AppleWorks Version 2.0. Apple- 
Works is the same basic program as /// E-Z Pieces but was 
written by Lissner for the Apple II computer series after he wrote 
/// E-Z Pieces for the Apple ///. Since the time of AppleWorks' 
original release, sales of that program have skyrocketed. There 
was no need to convince Lissner to produce updates to Apple- 
Works because of the original's popularity; sales and royalties 
were guaranteed. So he produced several updates on the way to 
the current version presendy on the market, AppleWorks Version 
2.0. But, since production and support of the Apple /// was 
discontinued by Apple, Lissner had no incentive to produce even 
one update for his original /// version of AppleWorks, /// E-Z 
Pieces - until now. 

ON THREE offered Lissner a percentage of the program's profits 
if he would take time away from his other programming efforts 
to update /// E-Z Pieces for the Apple ///. Lissner was 
approaching the end of one project and knew he'd have some free 
time before beginning his next when ON THREE requested that 
he write an update of /// E-Z Pieces. Lissner accepted the 
proposal under one condition: a significant number of current /// 
E-Z Pieces owners had to be willing to purchase the update to 
make it worth his time and effort. ON THREE agreed with 
Lissner's thinking and proceeded to do a feasibility study. A flier 
was sent to 22,000 known Apple /// owners, TAU mentioned the 
project in the current edition of its newsletter, The /// Magazine 
included a piece about the update and user groups across the 
country spread the word. The ON THREE toll-free order lines 
were opened for update requests and special ON THREE price 
discounts were given to anyone calling about the /// E-Z Pieces 

Only 1,300 owners of /// E-Z Pieces were wilUng to purchase 
the update. According to the estimates of Lissner, Bob Consorti 
and Richard and Lavona Rann, 50 to 60 percent of the people 
who received the flyer own and use /// E-Z Pieces. So if at least 
10,000 owners of /// E-Z Pieces were reached with news of the 

update, why did only 10 percent of those owners respond when 
asked if they would someday purchase one? The update would add 
attractive new features to the original program as well as fix 
several bugs. Mail merge capabihty, more records for the data 
base, more cells in the spreadsheet, more room in the word 
processor ~ all this and more would be offered in the new 
version. Everyone at ON THREE is saddened by this turn of 
events and is at a loss to explain it. 

Nonetheless, the update will not be produced. The primary reason 
for this decision is lack of response. It would be naive to think 
that Robert Lissner would spend three to four months on an 
updated version of /// E-Z Pieces when only 1,300 copies may be 
sold. So, you say, wouldn't he do it for sentimental reasons? 
After all, /// E-Z Pieces was the father of a highly successful 
child, AppleWorks. Perhaps a few years ago he might have, but 
he has had a terrible time deahng with the company which owns 
the rights to /// E-Z Pieces: Haba Systems, Inc. While Haba as 
the owner of the program must pay Lissner royalties, Lissner 
said that he has not received payment from them for the last 18 
months. He has tried to contact them, but they do not return his 
calls or letters. In short, they have effectively destroyed any 
emotional incentive Robert Lissner may have had for producing a 
/// E-Z Pieces update. Even if he had done an update, there is a 
definite possibility that Haba would have sought a share of his 
profits. For Lissner, it is a no-win situation. 

But to those of you who did respond, ON THREE sends a heart- 
felt thank you. ON THREE did its best to bring a /// E-Z Pieces 
update to the community and plans to do what it can to help 
those of you who showed an interest in a /// E-Z Pieces update. 
Currently on the drawing board are a mail merge accessory for 
the Desktop Manager as well as a spelling checker for /// E-Z 

Parting Is Such Sweet Sorrow 

I must sadly and fondly say goodbye to all of you. I recently 
accepted a position with another Southern California software 
producer and will be editing their newsletter in addition to 
performing other functions for that organization. I have greatly 
enjoyed editing this magazine and will dearly miss my inter- 
actions with you, ON THREE magazine's subscribers and 
authors. ON THREE'S new editor is Paula Sheppard, who comes 
to this magazine fi"om a newspaper in Wyoming. Paula is 
looking forward to assuming this position and I know all of you 
will make her feel welcome. 


ON THREE April, 1987 

Dish of the Mouth 

What is the ultimate time-saver? \X^y ON THREE'S Disk of the Month disl<ettes, of course. \X^y use your 
precious time typing in ON THREE program listings when they are available on diskette for just $ 1 4.95 (plus 
$2 shipping and handling) each? 

Better yet, mix and match. Any two or more for $1 2.50 each (plus $4 total shipping and handling). Best bet: 
the works. 

Now is the time to start your collection of these program-filled diskettes from all issues of ON THREE l\/tagazine. 
Bulk and group purchase rates are also available, call (805) 644-3514 to inquire about these super savers. 

DOM #1— Extra Disk Space Plus! 

This diskette contains all programs from volume I, nos. 1 
and 2 of ON THREE Magazine. Included: Disk Pakl with a 
program to give you four additional blocks of space on your 
data disks, and Disk Pak2, something you can't do without if 
you are a Pascal user, a convenient and easy way to list the 
files on a Pascal directory. Plus graphics and sound demos 
and more. 

DOM #2— Changing Printer Characters 

Here is an amazing program you won't want to miss. With 
it you can print to the Apple Dot Matrix and compatibles 
such as Imagewriter or ProWriter the same characters that are 
shown on your video display. Many special fonts, including 
fancy gothic characters, can enhance your printed output. 
And, it comes with complete documentation. Also on DOM 
#2 are the other programs from issue number 3, more graphic 
demos plus: a program to list files from an Apple II diskette 
without entering emulation mode. 

DOM #3— Redefining a Keyboard 

This disk is jam-packed full with programs that appeared in 
Volume 1, No. 4 of ON THREE, and includes an easy-to-use 
program to redefine any or all keys on the Apple /// 
keyboard. Of particular interest is the ability to reassign the 
"\" to be the delete key so it can be used on AppleWriter /// 
and other programs. Also included are all the WPL programs, 
a disk formatting utility, a graphics sketching tool and still 
more that we don't have room to list here. 

DOM #4— Emuiation Patch 

Volume 11, No. 1 had so many great programs it took two 
disks, DOM's 4 and 5, to hold them all. DOM 4 has all of the 
Pascal programs and the Apple 11 Emulation Patch, a way to use 
any Apple /// Font in emulation. Also included is the Pascal 
startup program for Access /// that lets you autodial. Another 
fine utility is a Pascal program and UNIT to permit 
calculations from within the Pascal environment. Demos 
haven't been forgotten either with Radiate Graphics Demo and 
Beatles Music Demo. To top things off, we have included a 
number of Draw ON pictures you can view with the program 
on DOM #5. 

DOM #5— Access Draw ON 

Here we find the BASIC startup program to autodial from 
Access ///, and Ben's SUPER Slot Machine, along with all of the 
VisiCalc and WPL programs, and the Circling Graphics Demo 
which will show some of the fantastic images that Draw ON 
can create, plus still more Draw ON pictures, along with the 
Draw ON ///Picture Demo which you use to view Draw ON 

DOM #6— BASiC Lister Pius! 

Straight from the pages of Vol. II, No. 2 is a program which 
will give you perfectly formatted listings of Business Basic 
programs, and a Pascal program to guide and assist you in 
selecting noises for animation and game programs: Both the 
Pascal Noisemaker and the BASIC lister come with full 
documentation. We've also tossed in still more Draw ON 
pictures and some new fonts, as well. You can use the Draw 
ON viewer from DOM 5 to see them. 

DOM #7— Heap Good Stuff 

From Vol. ///, Nos. 1 and 2 we present a BASIC heap sort 
routine and demo, IMAGEHELPER, a neat graphics utility to 
simplify graphic image design, and a menu-driven program to 
pre-select printer codes and parameters. 

DOM #8— Directory Sorting 

Here is what you have been waiting for, a complete BASIC 
and Assembly program to take those old chopped up 
directories and sort them out in just the order you want. 
Included also is Clean. Heads, a Pascal program which 
excercises your disk drive at cleaning time and writes a 
program to remind you when you last cleaned heads, plus a 
simple utility to read a text file and find out what the 
contents are without having to write a program on the spot. 

DOM #9— Music, Music, Music 

Here is a great collection of programs from April through 
luly, 1986. Music Maker and Music Player let you create and play 
your own Merry Melodies with alternate sets of DATA 
statements in BASIC. Energy Plotter not only plots energy 
consumption graphs, but contains techniques to "roll your 
own." In addition you will find a space game, graphics images 
and an assembly language subroutine to find maximum and 
minimum values in an integer array. 

DOM #10— Editing Character Sets 

A great Pascal program to download and modify or create 
new fonts, this editor makes childs-play out of designing new 
text characters to meet your specific needs. Special math 
signs, foreign alphabets, you can do them all. Football Pool is a 
BASIC program to print out a grid for that office pool. All you 
do is type in the teams, the scores, and the participants; it 
does the rest. What? 3-D Video? Yes, indeed, Stereo Spiral 
shows how, using simple Business Basic subroutines. For the 
more technically inclined, the assembly subroutine Pixel 
Inverter does just that. Also included is Prompt Procedure, a 
collection of Pascal and assembly demos to write to the 
screen, and a couple of programs in WPL (Word Processing 
Language) to be used with AppleWriter. 

The Beginning /// 

Richard and Lavona Rann 

Repair and Maintenance 

What do you do if, heaven forbid, something goes wrong with 
your computer. Like any other manmade device, the Apple /// is 
subject to mechanical breakdown. Over the years the /// has prov- 
en to be a very sturdy machine, however, a couple of problems 
have been known to surface from time to time. Fortunately the 
most common problems are simple ones related to dirt and move- 
ment. With the advancing age of the earlier ///s and the fact that 
many people have been buying used Apple ///"s which were 
moved around or stored for a period of time, a few problems are 
frequendy occurring. 

The first problem stems from loose or corroded parts on mother- 
boards (including add-on memory boards). The loosening of chips 
comes from vibration or heating and cooling. Vibration occurs in 
a cumulative manner with extended use or more obviously from 
moving the ///. The heating and cooUng occurs with normal use 
as the machine heats up when on and cools off when turned off. 
The temperature changes and vibrations often cause the chips to 
work loose and make faulty contact. 

The second problem stems from accumulated dust and dirt under 
the keyboard which inhibits the functioning of the tiny switches 
under each key. With a little patience, time, some simple tools 
and the information that follows, these problems can be easily 

Doing the Chip Walk 

Once, things were worse. The very first Apple ///"s had a severe 
problem with the design of the chip sockets on the motherboard: 
the snap-in sockets loosened after the repeated heating and 
cooling of normal use. This caused system failures in which the 
machine just stopped. In some machines the failure rate became 
as high as every few minutes. Apple fixed the problem by chang- 
ing the socket mechanism on the motherboard and replacing the 
motherboards, for the early /// owners, with with ones having the 
new sockets. This helped alleviate but did not completely solve 
the problem. Apple ///s are still very sensitive to heat and are 
especially prone to problems when several of the expansion slots 
are fdled. 

When a chip loosens, the /// normally locks-up or stops, but the 
problem can have a number of other manifestations. When the /// 
locks-up, the screen does not generally go blank or otherwise 
change; most of the time it stays the same as if all is well and 
you are only waiting for a calculation or disk access. Cursor 
movement often becomes inhibited. Everything looks okay, but 

you can't get the machine to do anything. Very often this occurs 
when the machine has just started to perform a disk read or write, 
and the normal wait just seems to become indefinite. Some 
programs will be at a "System busy" or similar message used to 
indicate that a relatively slow activity is occurring. At other 
times there is a failure to execute, or even find, a program 
instruction. These situations are harder to diagnose because they 
appear to be software (program) problems. If upon doing a reboot 
and executing the same program the same way it works okay, or 
fails in a different place, the odds are fairly good that there is a 
chip problem. Each failure has a particular look due to certain 
chips which have loosened and to the program's location in 
memory. Eventually, it will cause the /// to stop running. When 
this happens, everything in memory is lost because you will 
have to reboot. If it stops during a write command, the file being 
written to disk will probably be ruined, and if not, the directory 
on the disk will probably be messed up (a hsting of the device 
by System UtiUties will give a "Directory damaged" message). If 
nothing else, the possibility of this type of system failure should 
encourage you to regularly and frequendy back up your work in 

Another possible indication of "chip walk" comes from SOS 
(Sophisticated Operating System). Like end user programs, SOS 
can give a wide variety of error messages in this situation, 
depending on where the failure is. One of the most common is 
"ERROR $02." Basically, this message indicates that SOS 
cannot find where to go. It has lost the ability to find the next 
instruction. Whether you get this message or one of the handful 
of other common ones, a likely and relatively-easy-to-solve prob- 
lem is loose chips. One further test is to turn off the machine 
and allow the motherboard to cool. Most of the time this will 
allow the /// to be rebooted, but it may not correct the problem. 
If the machine appears to start up again and then fails again in a 
few minutes, first check to see if failure occurs in the same 
program at the same place. If so, it may be a program problem. 
If not, the odds are that you have either a corroded socket that 
does not make proper contact, or a loose or bad chip. Bad chips, 
however, normally cause a consistent problem which can be re- 
peated whereas bad connections are normally intermittent. 

Many of you may have heard of the "/// drop." In the early days 
of the Apple ///, technical advisors suggested this dangerous 
procedure, which amounted to lifting the front edge of the key- 
board an inch or two away from the table and letting it drop. The 
shock was supposed to cause the chips to be reseated. Unfortu- 
nately other chips could be loosened or delicate circuits stressed 
with this type of treatment. Fortunately, we've progressed further 
in our ability to attack Apple /// problems. We do not recom- 

ON THREE April, 1987 

mend the /// drop, nor do we approve of any other remedy which 
sounds as if it was first practiced in professional wrestling. 

The best solutions, as with most difficulties, are preventative. 
One good idea is to install a fan. There are several types of fans 
available which can be used in or near a ///. An internal fan will 
do the best job, but one that blows across the back of the 
machine will help a lot. Another simple, but unfortunately 
partial, solution to the problem of overheating is to permanendy 
raise the /// off of the desk top so a greater volume of cooling air 
passes underneath. This can be accomplished by placing a couple 
strips of wood under the rubber legs and is applicable to the top 
of the /// as well. For example, if you have a monitor or Profile 
sitting on top of your ///, raising it an inch or two to improve 
the circulation of air can help. These steps cut down on the heat 
levels and minimize heat-related problems. 

If the problem already exists, it may yet be fixable at home. 
We've found that if the "chip walk" has been a recurrent problem 
on a ///, there is probably either a very loose chip or a problem 
with corrosion on the chip legs or in the sockets. Since there is 
very little voltage involved, only minute amounts of corrosion 
cause problems. To solve this type of problem, the motherboard 
must be removed and cleaned, and the chips reseated in the 
motherboard as well as the memory boards. This is not a difficult 
operation; most of us can master it in one short session. The 
most important thing is to work slowly and methodically and to 
have reasonable respect for the delicate nature of the parts 
involved. Anyone exercising reasonable care and caution should 
have no problems. For the non-mechanical among us, it might 
be best to have a service technician perform the operation, but it 
may be hard finding someone willing to work on a ///, and will 
probably be quite expensive. 

You need a few things before beginning. You'll require both a 
Square-bar standard screwdriver and aPhillips screwdriver because 
the bottom plate of the /// is held on with 9 or 10 Phillips-head 
screws. The next items you need are a chip puller and a can of 
electronic component cleaner (called television tuner cleaner in 
electronic and television shops). These two are sold at Radio 
Shack as well as any number of independent electronics stores 
and computer shops. Several companies make packs of computer 
tools packaged in a leather pouch for easy storage near the 
computer. These usually contain chip pullers as well as several 
other useful tools like tweezers, tongs and an assortment of 
screwdrivers; one of these packs even includes a chip pin 
straightener which works on several of the more common types 
of chips. It is also a good idea to have a soft, lint-free cloth 
handy as well as a flat surface with enough space to disassemble 
the Apple /// and on which components can be sprayed without 
doing damage. (You can work without a chip puller, but it is 
simpler and safer if you use one.) 

Once you have your tools at hand and have read all the 
instructions, you are ready to start. Please read through the whole 
process before embarking on this effort. 

First: make sure the /// is turned off (you really should unplug 
it); remove all of the cords and devices you normally have 
attached to the ///; take off the top cover by loosening the two 
screws on either side of the keyboard; and remove all the cards 
from the slots by gently pulling them straight up. You will 
want to make it easy to remember which cards were in which 
slots, so keep them in order or place a note with each card. Set 
the cards on a flat surface where they will be safe from anything 
which could jar them or put pressure on their circuits. 

Once the /// has been stripped of cards and attachments, it is 
ready to be turned over. Place the /// upside-down on the table so 
it is resting on the metal frame with the keyboard facing toward 
you, as if you were going to type on the back side of it. The 
bottom is covered by two metal panels which are attached by 
screws to the ///"s aluminum frame. The panel on the right-hand 
side is long and narrow and covers the power supply. For this 
procedure the power supply panel can be ignored. Remove the 
screws from the larger panel with the Phillips screwdriver and set 
them aside. 

CAUTION: Before the motherboard can be completely re- 
moved, several connectors must be carefully disconnected. With 
the bottom panel loose, slowly lift the inside edge as if the I IPs 
outside edge was hinged. After lifting it a few inches, several sets 
of wires become visible. The first wire, or connector, runs from 
the internal disk drive to the disk drive connector plug on the rear 
edge, located now in the upper-left comer of the ///. This wire is 
a ribbon wire like the ones connecting the external disk drives to 
the /// and has a similar directional plug with a notch to prevent 
attaching it in the wrong direction. Another ribbon wire runs 
from the front edge of the /// and connects near the middle of the 
hinged edge. This is the keyboard wire and it too is notched to 
prevent reversing the order of the connectors. From the location 
of the keyboard plug, a twisted red and black wire connects to the 
motherboard at a spot three chips toward the center of the ma- 
chine away from the keyboard plug. This is the speaker connec- 
tion. It is a two-pronged plug with a notch in the connector 
which must be re-connected facing the back of the machine. 
Finally, a bundle of insulated wires attaches to a plug close to 
the center of the raised edge of the machine. This is the power 
supply cord. Beginning with the power supply, disconnect the 
cords in order ending with the disk drive connectors. 

NOTE: These are the basic cords on all APPLE ///'s. Some 
other add-on's or optional equipment add connections. If your /// 
has a clock, the batteries will be connected to the motherboard 
with a wire and a connector. Another common connection is 
found in ///s which have Titan ///+//e cards installed. In that 
case, a ribbon connector runs from the graphics chip socket to 
the new graphics chip on the Titan board. 

additional connections and it is important that you can identify 
each connection and return it to the way it was after the cleaning 
is finished. It is a very good idea to use tape or peel-off labels to 
mark each wire and its attachment point before they are 



disconnected. Labeling each wire also allows you to indicate the 
direction of the plug. Check carefully that all wires have been 
removed and their connection location has been noted before 
moving on to the next step. 

Now the motherboard should be free and can be removed from the 
///. Lay the access panel on its back so the motherboard is in the 
same position as if the /// were operating. For the curious, we 
are including a quick tour of the chips and what is where. The 
rest of you can skip to the next paragraph. A row of larger chips 
stretches across the front edge of the board; these are the logic 
chips. The two double-sized chips, fourth and fifth from the left 
side, are 6502B 3 MHz processor chips. The smaller chip next 
on the right is the ROM boot/monitor chip. Behind the 
processor chips are several rows of smaller chips. On the right 
side, extending to the center of the motherboard four rows deep, 
are the first 128K of RAM. In a 256K machine, a bridge piece 
raised above this section and crossing the entire board carries the 
second 128K of RAM. Behind the RAM chips on the mother- 
board are the chips devoted to timing. Around Uie place where the 
keyboard plugs in are a half-dozen chips for keyboard control, and 
at the back of the right side are the chips which control the 
internal disk drive functions. On the left side, beginning in the 
third row from the front, are the chips for controlling the video. 
REMEMBER that this quick tour is only a most general over- 
view and that it deliberately omits many important components. 
It is provided to give you a brief orientation to the operating lay- 
out of the ///. If you want precise information on the chip lay- 
out, you'll need copies of the technical and/or service manuals for 

Now, let's begin the cleaning process. You will simply remove 
and re-seat all the chips on the motherboard. There is nothing 
difficult about this process. It is only necessary to work with 
care. The main reasons for exercising care can be summarized in 
the following three statements. First, some of the chips may be 
tight and have to be worked carefully from their sockets with a 
gentle back and forth rocking motion. Second, many of the 
connections on the motherboard are fragile and will not stand 
excessive forcing. Third, the legs on the chip are extremely 
fragile and must be handled gentiy. They will often bend back 
into place, but they can also break off. Obviously, components 
will not work correctly with broken legs. 

At this point a chip puller is a great help. The puller itself looks 
like a tweezers with points turned in on itself. The points are 
designed to slip between the chip legs at the center of the chip. 
This gives a good purchase on the body of the chip so it can be 
worked out of the socket while putting as little strain on the legs 
as possible. This can also be accomplished with a small, thin- 
bladed screwdriver. With the screwdriver the best technique is to 
attack the chip from the end, well away from the legs. The 
screwdriver may have to be moved from side to side in order to 
work the chip free. 

Once a chip is out, several things must be done. First the chip 
legs must be checked and straightened if bent and then sprayed 
with cleaner and rubbed with an abrasive cloth. The chip legs are 
made of a soft metal which can be easily reshaped. Next the area 
around the socket should be cleaned. Here, we've found that a 
small computer vacuum can be useful. It can remove dust and 

ON THREE Presents. . . 

Graphics Manager"^ $49.95 

* ^ plus $3-00 $/h 

The compleat sraphics utility for the Apple /// interfaces to Draw ON ///""' and 
all graphics programs and allows printing enlarged or reduced portions of the graphics 
screen, normal or inverted, single or double density and with four rotation values. 

For the first time you can load directly any DOS 3.3 or ProDos Hires or double 
Hires graphic files (including "Print Shop") and of course SOS fotofiles or other binary 
graphic images. 

Comes complete with full documentation and diskette containing standalone SOS 
interpreter and a Desktop Manager'"" module. All popular printers, serial and parallel 
interfaces supported and limited color graphics capability is included. 

• Available nov\^! 

ON THREE April, 1987 

hair that accumulates on the motherboard, but has a small 
enough suction level that it will not damage the electronic parts. 
Do NOT use a standard vacuum cleaner! The small computer 
vacuum is also helpful with keyboard problems discussed later in 
this article. The motherboard can be sprayed with component 
cleaner with emphasis on the exposed empty sockets. Make sure 
before reattaching the power that the cleaner on the motherboard 
has dried completely. 

Now you are ready to place the chip back into the socket. Re- 
member that the legs must be straight for the chip to be properly 
HAVE TOUCHED. Electronic component cleaner will help the 
legs make contact in the socket. Slip the chip back into the 
socket with a rocking motion pressing it gently into place. 
Many times there will be a slight click as the chip re-seats itself. 
The force should be steady and gentle. Remember that too much 
pressure may damage the plug or the connections holding it in. 
Repeat the same procedure with each chip. 

Reassembling the /// is essentially the reverse of taking it apart. 
Bring the motherboard back to the main chassis and re-connect 
the wires taking care that they are in the right place and in the 
right orientation. Swing the bottom panel back into position and 
replace the screws. While this process has solved the "chip walk" 
problem for many people, it is only a temporary solution. It 
may have to be repeated as often as every six months or one 
year. For some users we have talked to, the cleaning seems to 
have been a permanent solution to the problem, or at least one 
that has lasted for several years. This process is also effective 
when you have to replace a chip because it has gone bad. Bad 
chips have not been as common a problem but now that you 
know how to open, remove and replace chips, you also know 
how to replace a defective chip. In a later article, we will explain 
ways to determine whether or not a chip is defective. 


Since we have shown the way to attack the most common hard- 
ware problem, we might as well delve into the other common 
problem. Apple /// keyboards are susceptible to several maladies 
which are generally corrected the same way. The most common 
reason for problems is wear, followed closely by dirt. Normally 
the keyboard is sensitive, but corrosion and dirt may make it 
oversensitive or not sensitive at all. If a key switch is corroded it 
may not break contact quickly enough and put a half dozen 
strokes on the screen for each actual stroke made. At other times 
it may not make contact at all, no matter how hard you strike the 
key. Cleaning may solve the problem in some cases, but in 
others part replacement may be required. For example, the micro- 
switch under each key can wear out. When that happens, it is 
possible to replace the key and switch yourself, but this takes a 
certain skill with a soldering iron, so many people choose to 
have a professional perform this operation. It is expensive, about 

$35 a key with discounts for changing more than a single key at 
a time. While changing keys is not difficult in theory, it does 
take some practice, knowledge and a little skill, therefore, we do 
not recommended that novices attempt it. What you can do to 
lengthen the time between needed repairs is to keep the keyboard 
clean and free from dust and corrosion. Once again a small vacu- 
um is a great help and a dust cover can be a good investment. A 
regular vacuum cleaner brush attachment can be used on the 
outside of the keyboard to remove dust, but if the keyboard is 
opened, it is better to use a small vacuum designed for use with a 
computer or other electronic equipment. 

Before assuming that a key needs replacing, or as part of normal 
maintenance, we suggest an annual cleaning. To open the key- 
board for cleaning, make sure the power is off before turning the 
/// upside down. On the bottom of the keyboard are five screws, 
one in each of the comers, and a single screw in the center along 
the front edge. Remove these five screws and turn the machine 
right-side up again. The cover over the keyboard should now be 
loose and easily removed. Beneath it is the keyboard assembly. 
To remove the keyboard assembly take out the two screws on the 
left side and loosen, but DO NOT REMOVE, the two screws on 
the right side. Lift up on the left side of the keyboard^ssembly 
and slip it from under the two loosened right hand screws. The 
keyboard can be completely removed by disconnecting the 
keyboard cable located on the middle rear edge of the keyboard. 

With the keyboard assembly out, the inside of the keyboard case 
can be vacuumed with a LOW SUCTION vacuum. The space 
between micro-switches can be cleaned and the back side of the 
keyboard can be sprayed with an electronic component cleaner to 
remove corrosion. This part of the keyboard is relatively sturdy 
and can stand up to brushing with a soft bristle brush. To 
remove the key caps just pull them straight up. They are held on 
by friction. Once they are removed, the microswitches are 
exposed. Remove hair and dust then spray liberally with 
electronic component cleaner. Allow the cleaner to bubble away 
the dirt and corrosion from the contact points. When everything 
is clean and dry, replace the keyboard cable, place the keyboard 
back into its mounts, reset the screws and close the keyboard 
cover, ending by replacing the five screws. BE CAREFUL NOT 

Each of these procedures is easy, even for people with little 
knowledge of electronics. What is needed is care and attention to 
a few basic rules. First, the Apple /// should always be 
disconnected from the electrical outlet before any work is started. 
Second, nothing should be forced. If a chip cannot be removed, it 
is probably not the one causing the problem. Third, make sure 
everything is dry before turning the machine back on. Even 
approved electronic cleaning agents can cause shorts when they 
are still in a liquid state. Finally, if anything seems strange or 
(Continued on p. 10) 


April, 1987 ON THREE 

/// Telecommunications 

Rodney Hendricks 

As an avid telecommunications nut, and an even more avid 
Apple /// user, I've looked everywhere for information about tele- 
communicating with the ///. Alas, none was to be found. Be- 
cause I have spent many hours with my Apple /// connected to 
other computers, I decided to compensate for this lack of telecom- 
munication information by sharing some of this knowledge with 
you through a column in ON THREE. So for those of you who 
have a /// and a modem, or those of you who are interested in tele- 
communication, I offer what I do know in this article and in 
articles to come. 

My Apple /// was about a year old when I decided to purchase a 
modem. Having read an article in one of the various computing 
magazines about connecting one computer to another so they 
could communicate, I became interested in learning more about 
it. So I climbed into my trusty vehicle, armed only with a 
checkbook and the desire to enter this magical kingdom known 
as online. I returned home bearing a box inscribed with the words 
"Apple Modem 1200," proceeded to tear into the box and started 
getting acquainted with the equipment which would give me 
access to this new world. 

The directions were clear: set a few DIP switches, connect a cable 
from the modem to the built-in serial port on my ///, plug the 
modem into the wall, plug a modular phone cord into the modem 
and away I went. By sheer accident I managed to connect with 
several electronic bulletin board services (BBS's) that weekend 
and amassed a rather large long distance telephone bill (it didn't 
occur to me that I could learn how to use this equipment by 
calling local numbers). 

Now is a good moment to spend talking about what you will 
need to go online. I'll assume that you already have the first 
piece to the puzzle, your Apple ///. The second thing you need is 
a modem. The third and last requirement is the software, either a 
terminal or communications program. 

Modems are generally categorized according to baud rate, which 
is the speed it sends signals over telephone lines. A 300 baud 
modem sends 30 characters per second, a 1200 baud modem sends 
120 characters per second, a 2400 baud modem sends 240 
characters per second and so on. Two years ago, when I bought 
my 1200 baud modem, about 90 percent of the bulletin board 
services were running at 300 baud, with the remainder operating 
at 1200. The modem I bought operated at either 300 or 1200 
baud, so as more and more boards switched to the much faster 
1200 baud, I was not left behind. Currently about five percent of 
the bulletin boards operate at 2400 baud. If you are considering 
buying a modem at this time, the lowest speed I recommend 

purchasing is 1200 baud. A good, name-brand 1200 baud modem 
can be purchased for around $100. 

When you go modem shopping, you will repeatedly hear the 
phrase "Hayes compatible." Hayes has been the front-runner in 
the modem business for several years, therefore most modem 
manufacturers produce their modems to be Hayes compatible. 
But exactly what does this mean? 

Hayes created a standard language used by computers and their 
modems to communicate. In other words, if you type in ATDT, 
the modem knows to pick up the telephone receiver (actually it 
initializes the telephone line) and tone-dial any digits following 
the ATDT. So if you type in ATDT5550080 the modem 
secures a dial tone and tone-dials the telephone number 555- 
0080. Other commands allow you to pause, pulse-dial and auto- 
answer as well as perform many other duties. Since Hayes was 
and still is the largest marketer of modems for the micro- 
computer industry, most software written is written to support 
Hayes protocol. Several terminal programs do not require that 
you know any of the Hayes commands because they have menus 
which allow you to select tone- or pulse-dial and enter a Ust of 
frequently-called telephone numbers. Dialing is then simply a 
matter of scrolling through the list of telephone numbers, 
making a selection and dialing the number by pressing only one 
key. So you do not need to learn the modem commands if you do 
not wish to, although they are not complicated. I do, however, 
highly recommend that you buy a modem which is Hayes 

Now let's talk about software. I suggest you start out with a 
menu-driven software program such as Apple's Access /// or 
Southeastern Software's Data Capture /// because these programs 
allow you to select from a menu the action you wish to perform. 

All terminal programs have a configuration section. One exam- 
ple of a configuration section is listed in Figure 1. Another, 
from Sun System Remarketing's Easy Term, happens to be my 
favorite and is listed in Figure 2. 

Figure 1 


Baud rate: 
Data format: 
Backspace Character: 
Control Character Mute: 
Terminal Mode: 
Communications Protocol: 
Character wait: 


8 bits, no parity 



Full Duplex 



ON THREE April,1987 

Figure 2 

MICRO/Courier Terminal Mode 
Terminal Options: 

Send file name 

Receive file name 

Telephone number 

Baud rate 110 300 600 1200 

Flow control None Xon/Xoff Etx/Ack 

Duplex mode Full Half 

Data format: data bits ... 7 7 7 7 8 

parity Odd Even Mark; Space None 

Auto <LF> after <CR> .... Yes No 

Left arrow key mapping ... 08 

Delay after <CR> 00 

Delay after <LF> 00 

Delay after form feed .... 00 

Xon 11 

Xoff 13 

Command delimiter 7E 

Hardware handshake Yes No 

As you can see, you can change several items to modify or 
configure your system to suit your needs. It is important to note 
that both computers must be set with the same configuration or 
they will be unable to communicate. Baud rate can usually be 
set from 110 to 9600 baud for most terminal packages I've seen 
for the Apple ///. The data format allows you to select the 
manner in which the bytes of information are sent across the 
telephone lines. You wiU find that two common data format 
configurations will take care of most of your telecommunication 
needs. About 90 percent of all computer systems I've encountered 
operate at 8 bits, 1 stop bit and no parity, and the only other 
setting I've ever had to use was 7 bits, 1 stop bit and even parity. 
You'll also find that the duplex mode setting for most bulletin 
board systems is full duplex. This means that when you type 

something on your Apple ///, the signal is sent through the 
modem, across the telephone line to the other computer and 
echoed back to your computer so you can see what you're 
sending. If you cannot see what you are typing, then you need to 
change the duplex setting to half duplex. If you are seeing two of 
everything you type, for example typing "hello" produces 
"hheellUoo," then you must switch to full duplex. Most terminal 
programs allow you to switch duplex modes without hanging up 
and re-dialing. 

Currently, the preferred flow control setting for downloading a 
file from another computer is X-ON/X-OFF. As soon as 
XMODEM becomes available, that will be the best method to 

Next month, I'll review some of the telecommunications pro- 
grams available for the Apple ///. 


(The Beginning /// Continued) 

out of place, seek help. The Apple /// is made to surprisingly 
exact tolerances; it can be damaged easily. It can be safely han- 
dled, though, if care is taken. Both of these procedures will help 
keep your Apple /// functioning at peak efficiency for years and 
get it back up and running quickly should you be one of the 
unlucky ones to run into these common hardware problems. 


ON THREE Presents. . . 

Disk Manager 

This Desktop Manager mod- 
ule features the most fre- 
quently used applications of 
Apple's System Utilities and 
makes them available to you 
from within any program. 
Copy, delete, rename, lock/ 
unlock and Hst all of the files 
on your disk without leaving 
the program you're using. 
Copy, format, rename and 
verify volume commands 
are available as well, so you 
will never again lose data 
because you exited a pro- 
gram to format a disk. Only 
$44.95 plus $3 s/h. 

Disk Manager 

File Commands 

List Directory 
Copy File 
Delete File 
Rename File 

Device Commands 

List All Devices 
Copy Volume 
Format Disk 
Rename Volume 
FileVerify Volume 

(5? = Help 

r-T Drnoo DCTI IDM t/^ Dl IM COr^ A DC ♦« CVIT 

Uoc; MiiUW tVcyb lU OCLIZvy i , r ic;oo r^i_ i i^ni>i i\j rnw»i>i. L-ovy/nr i_ lu i_/\i i . 


April, 1987 ON THREE 

Text File Manager 

Cevin Soling 

While this Business BASIC program doesn't offer all of the 
features of the Desktop Manager's Disk Manager module, it does 
permit you to list text files while in BASIC, just as the Disk 
Manager does. However, this program goes one step further: it 
lets you view a text file in .Dl or .D2 by sending it to either 
your console or your printer without leaving BASIC. There are 
two stipulations, however: there must be at least five blocks of 
free disk space available in drive 1 and the disk should not have 
its write protection notch covered. To use the program after you 
have entered and saved it, boot Business BASIC, load the file and 
run it. The user interface is clear and easy to understand. 




















Text File Manager 
by Cevin Soling 

Copyright (c) 1987 




DIM APL${255) :DIM TXT$(255) :DIM APL(255) 

DIM Z$(255) :DIM Y$(255) 



DRIVE — > 1" 

DRIVE — > 2" 


PRINT" (1) 
PRINT" (2) 
PRINT" (3) 
IF A<1 
IF A=l 
IF A=2 
IF A=3 
REM => 

OR A>3 THEN 4 5 
THEN 4 00 



ON E0F#1 GOTO 115 

IF MID$ {APL$(A) ,16,8)="CAT.TEXT" THEN 105 
(A), 6)=" *TEXT" THEN TXT$ (B) =APL$ (A) :B=B+1 
GOTO 95 

115 CL0SE#1 

120 B=B-1 


130 HOME 

135 FOR Z=l TO B 
14 PRINT" (";Z;") ";TXT${Z) 
14 5 Z$ (Z)=MID$ (TXT$(Z) ,16) 
150 NEXT Z 
155 Y=2 

160 FOR Z=l TO B 
165 IF LEFT$(Z$(Z) ,Y)=LEFT$(Z$(Z),Y-1)+" " T 

HEN Y$ (Z)=LEFT$(Z$ (Z) ,Y-1) :Y=2:G0T0 175 
170 Y=Y+1:G0T0 165 
175 NEXT Z 

178 PRINT 




185 INPUT A$ 

18 6 IF A$="" THEN RUN 

187 A=VAL{A$) 

190 IF A<1 OR A>B THEN 185 

195 HOME 


205. PRINT" (1) CONSOLE" 
210 PRINT" (2) PRINTER" 
215 PRINT" (3) DELETE" 
220 GET C 

225 IF C<1 OR C>3 THEN 220 
230 HOME 
235 X=0 

240 ON C GOTO 245,280,325 

245 0PEN#1 AS INPUT, PREFIX$+Y$ (A) 
247 X=l 

250 ON E0F#1 GOTO 259 
255 INPUT#1;APL$ (X) : APL (X) =LEN (APL$ (X) ) :X=X+1: 

GOTO 255 

259 CL0SE#1 

260 XY=1 


263 XY=XY+1:IF XY=X THEN 275 

265 IF APP+APL(XY+1)>1830 THEN APP=0 iPRINT : INV 

270 GOTO 262 

ON THREE April. 1987 


ON THREE Presents... 

The Lowest Price Ever On The 
51 2K Memory Upgrade 

Now Specially Priced 

At Only 


The 51 2K Memory Upgrade from ON THREE has been 
the ///'s best selling add-on hardware item for the last two 
years. And now it's even better. With the lowest price ever 
and a full six month warranty, now is the time to order your 
51 2K Memory Upgrade. 

Have you ever run out of memory in /// E-Z Pieces? Do 
your VisiCalc programs yearn for more memory? Have you 
ever had stack overflow problems with certain large 
programs? Do you want to use the new accessories to the 
Desktop Manager but can't spare the 32K of memory 
those utilities require? 

Worry no more, because with a 512K-equipped Apple 
///, all of your problems are over. Enjoy a full 41 4K of 
desktop space in /// E-Z Pieces, 442K in Advanced Visicalc, 
455K in Visicalc, 456K in Apple Writer ///, 456K in Business 
Basic-the list goes on. Almost all** programs running 
under the Apple /// SOS work with the 51 2K Memory 

Do you use Catalyst or Selector ///? Have you ever had 
problems running large programs such as State Of The Art 
Accounting, BPI, Omnis 3, Keystroke and Draw ON ///? 
These programs use all available memory in a 256K Apple 
///. Since Catalyst and Selector each occupy some memory 

as well, certain large programs will not work on a 256K 
Apple ///. 

A 51 2K Apple /// has enough memory and room to run 
the largest programs available today with some to spare. 
You can create larger spread sheets, data bases and word 
processing documents. Your 51 2K Apple /// will be able to 
do things few other personal computers can. 

Included free with the 51 2K Memory Upgrade is an 
ultra-fast RAMDisk. This is an optional enhancement to the 
51 2K Memory Upgrade which allows you to use a portion 
of your ///'s memory as a fast RAMDisk drive. One noticeable 
benefit is faster program utilization, but there are many 

The 51 2K Memory Upgrade is easy to Install and even 
easier to use. It is a replacement memory board and, 
therefore, doesn't need a precious expansion slot. Hidden 
inside your Apple /// Is a 128K or 256K memory board. 
Simply take out the old board and put In the new one. 

Using state-of-the-art 256K memory chips, the 51 2K 
Memory Upgrade is the single most exciting add-on pro- 
duced for the /// in a long, long time. Even though we 
have many 51 2K Memory Upgrades in stock, at this un- 
believably low price, we're expecting temporary shortages. 
Order yours today. 


The 51 2K Memory Upgrade includes: 

• Complete 24-page instruction manual. 

• Ultra-fast RAMDisk Drive with demonstration programs. 

• The 51 2K Upgrade disk which automatically adjusts your 
disks to utilize the 51 2K of memory and contains the 
updated version (1.2) of the System Utilities program 
permitting larger SOS.DRIVER files. 

•The 51 2K Confidence Memory Program which tests all 
memory and ensures your 51 2K Memory Board is working 

• ON THREE'S new and improved 1 80 day (six month) warranty. 
•And of course, an Apple /// 51 2K memory board with 

state-of-the-art, 256K memory chips. 
Place your order today for the exciting, low-priced 51 2K 
Memory Upgrade. 

Call toll-free: (800) 443-8877 
California residents: (800) 331-1418 

*The purchase price is $324 plus $10 shipping and 
handling. After installing the ON THREE 51 2K Memory 
Upgrade, return your old 256K memory board for a $25 
cash rebate or a $35 software credit. 

If you have a 128K Apple ///, the cost is $324 plus 
$1 shipping and handling with no rebate. If you order a 
51 2K upgrade for your 128K machine, please ask for 
the free 1 28K to 51 2K instructions. We recommend that 
a 128K to 51 2K upgrade be done by ON THREE or a 
registered Apple Dealer. 

ON THREE will install any memory upgrade for just 
$50. We offer a one day turnaround on 1 28K or 256K to 
51 2K upgrades. Call for more information. 
**The regular Word Juggler program works with the 
51 2K Memory Upgrade but does not offer additional 
lines for your documents. An upgraded version is available 
which allows twice as many lines in your documents. To 
obtain it, please send a disk with return postage to ON 
THREE. However, there is one known problem with the 
updated Word Juggler package. It does not work with 
the LexiCheck spell checker option. To check the spelling 
of a very large Word Juggler document, you must divide 
it into two smaller sections. 

**The program Multiplan from Microsoft does not 
recognize the 51 2K Memory Upgrade. 

270 GOTO 262 





280 0PEN#1 AS INPUT, PREFIX$+Y$ (A) 

285 ON E0F#1 GOTO 310 

290 INPUT#1; APL$ :X=X+1 

295 0PEN#2 AS OUTPUT, " .printer" 

300 0UTPUT#2 

305 PRINT APL$:GOTO 290 

310 CL0SE#1 

315 CL0SE#2 

320 GOTO 275 

32 5 HOME 


335 PRINT Z$ (A) 

340 GET Q$:IF INSTR { "Nn" , Q$) THEN RUN 

342 ON ERR GOTO 360 


350 PRINT CHR$ (7) ;Y$ (A) ;" IS DELETED" 





370 GET Q$:IF INSTR ( "Nn" , Q$) THEN RUN 


380 GOTO 345 

4 00 ON ERR END 


410 END 


Sales & Service 

Authorized Apple Service Center In Business Since 1973 

III Software in Stock 
Custom Software Applications 

In House Apple III Network System 

implements Spacecoast Hardware Network 

& Great Plains Accounting 

Exclusive Distributor For: 
Infotory-Inventory management for Apple III 

PKASO/a Printer Cards in Stock 

We also Service: 
Epson, Panasonic, Zenith 




1 1240 Nine Mile Rd., Warren, Ml 48089 - Hours: 8:30-5:30 EST M-F 
(313) 757-8192 

ON THREE presents. . . 


Crossword-Scrambler is a computer program that is educational and makes learning 
fun. Unlike many software products, Crossword-Scrambler is a challenge and really 
makes you think. While it is not a "shoot 'em up" type of arcade game, you will not be 
disappointed by this game's graphic displays and musical interludes. 

If you need a diversion from your daily computer routine, Crossword-Scrambler 
provides one without making you feel as if you're wasting time. Hundreds of different 
crossword questions provide hours of educational entertainment for you and your entire 

Purchase Crossword-Scrambler today and start having fun with your computer. 

Only $11.95 pitis $2 s/h 

ON THREE April, 1987 





SO, BUY ON THREE'S "I v My Apple HI" 
T-shirts, Sweatshirts and Caps! 

T-Shirts and Sweatshirts are available in yellow, 
blue, white and silver in small, medium, large 
and extra large sizes. 

T-Shirts can be purchased for $9.95 plus 
$3.00 shipping and handling. 
Sweatshirts are available for $15.95 
plus $3.00 shipping and handling. 


for $3.95 plus $2.00 s/h. 

ON THREE presents. . . 

The Uncopyprotect 
Driver S 1 9.95 S2's7h 

ON THREE has not changed its position 
regarding duplicating copyrighted programs for 
profit or to give away, but since many Apple /// 
software products are no longer supported, 
owners of AppleWrlter ///, VisiCalc, and VisiCalc 
Advanced Version are facing the problem of what 
to do when a diskette "crashes." After much 
consideration we decided to proceed with a 
product to solve that problem. The Uncopyprotect 
Driver \N\\\ allow you to make back up floppies of 
the above programs. For the first time, you can put 
your master disk in a safe place and boot on the 

Economically priced at only $19.95 plus $2.00 
shipping and handling, the Uncopyprotect Driver 
comes with full documentation and will work 
with Selector /// so you will no longer require a 
"key" diskette. The Uncopyprotect Driver is sold 
for legitimate^^rcliiysil purposes only. ON THREE 
does not condone and will not condone dupli- 
cating a disk for any other purpose. 

ON THR€€ Presents . . . 


plus $2 shipping and handling 

o new multhlevel arcade game b(i Mel Hstrahan 

• Use uuith joystick, keyboord or mouse 

• Con be run os o Desktop Monoger bockground module 

The objective of SANDMAN is to score as many points as possible. 
Salvage all of the Apple ///parts discarded throughout the halls 
of Apple's labyrinthian research lab to receive points, WARNING! 
The lab is haunted by the ghosts of JOBs. . .if they catch you, 
you're done fori 

Your only weapon against the JOBs is to find the WOZ who 
wanders about the lab peeking in on various projects. For a short 
time following a meeting of SANDMAN and WOZ the JOBS turn 
blue and may be exorcised if you can catch them. 

"—Brilliant, colorful and fast moving, 
Sandman will provide hours of fun/' 

Jst I cippio. I —Mi ' r 



Printer Upgrade 

Earl T Brelje 

I'm sure many of you who purchased your Apple /// three or four 
years ago also bought an Epson MX printer. After years of 
faithful service and no problems, many of you are considering 
replacing it anyway to have more speed and near letter quality 
print. But, if you want near letter quality print more than in- 
creased speed, I have the perfect solution for you: Dots-Perfect. 

Dots-Perfect is a printer upgrade kit from Dresselhaus Computer 
Products which works with the Epson FX, JX, RX and MX 
printers. The kit's installation procedures are well documented 
with pictures and explanations. To install the kit, you need only 
remove three chips from the printer, plug in a new board, run a 
jumper wire to a resistor and set dip switches not originally used 
by Epson. You can easily install it in less than 30 minutes. 

Several new features are now available. When the printer is 
online, pressing the FF button puts the printer into near letter 
quality (NLQ) mode. Although not as good as that of the new 9- 
or 24-pin printers, for a printer this old the print quaUty is not 
bad. Pressing the LF button returns the printer to the draft mode. 
Although all the software commands still work exactly as before, 
most functions can now be selected using the ONLINE, FF and 
LF buttons. Pressing the ONLINE and FF buttons together 
activates the menu selection mode. Pressing the FF button 
selects the functions and the LF button turns the functions off or 
on. The function selections are: 

1. Condensed 

2. Double-wide 

3. Emphasized 

4. Double-strike 

5. Perforation skip 

6. 1/2" left margin 

7. Italics 

8. Underline 

9. Fine print 

10. 8 lines per inch 

11. Slashed zero 

12. 8 1/2" wide paper 

After each press of the LF or FF button, a buzzer beeps to verify 
that it has been pressed. 

To select double- wide, press the FF twice, then the LF. Press the 
FF twice again and then the LF and double-strike is also selected. 
To deactivate the menu mode, press the ONLINE button. The 
printer is now in the double-wide and double-strike modes. And 

included in the kit for your easy reference is a sticker for the 
printer describing the operation of the menu mode and selections. 

The NLQ character set is a special two pass set, but it works 
with all the other functions of the printer. Also included is an 
IBM-compatible character set. Using the dip switches, the printer 
can be powered up with either the Epson or IBM set and draft or 
NLQ mode. NLQ or the IBM character set can also be selected 
from four new software control codes. 

The Bottom Line 

Overall, I would have to say that for the price this kit greatly 
improves the performance of the Epson printers. It is extremely 
easy to install, and the price of $79.95 is much easier on the 
checkbook than the $500 to $900 required to purchase a new 

The kit may be ordered directly from: 

Dresselhaus Computer Products 
837 East Alosta Avenue 
Glendora,CA 91740 

(818) 914-5831 



/// /// 

/// /// /// /// 


/// /// /// /// /// /// 


Liquidating large Apple /// system dirt cheap. Buy 
spares now! Disk drives, hardware, software, CPM, 
write for list. Glenn Young, 612 Delgado Drive, Baton 
Rouge, LA 70808. 

Classified Rates: $1 per word, $25 minimum. 
Copy must arrive 60 days prior to cover date, e.g. April 
1st for June issue. 

Subscriber Discount: $.50 per word, 
minimum. The following restrictions apply: 

- Non-commercial ads only. 

- No items valued over $100. 


ON THREE April,1987 



PHASE I: Experimenters and Hobby Users PHASE II: Education and Games 


The PHASE 111 CONFERENCE & EXPOSITION is the first major gathering designed explicitly for the business and 
professional user of Apple Computers. The seminars have been planned to provide the business/professional user (and 
developer) with tools and skills to increase productivity and profitability. 

Full registration includes 3 days of seminars and workshops, a keynote reception the first evening, a gala banquet on the 
second evening which will feature a major speaker as well as honor several of the pacesetters and pioneers of hardware 
and software for the Apple family. The first 200 persons registering will also receive invitations to the /// Forever 
Luncheon which will honor the people who have made major contributions to the continuing value of the Apple ///. 

The conference will address issues relevant to business use of all models of Apple computers. Seminars and workshops 
will be presented on three simultaneous tracks and will include topics ranging from introductory product tutorials, head-to- 
head comparisons of competing products and accounting issues, to advanced classes on specific products. A consistent 
goal of the conference will be to augment attendees' return on their Apple system investment. 

In addition, all attendees will receive full admission to the Phase III Exhibition. Representatives of a variety of hardware, 
software and service providers will be present to suggest solutions to your business problems. Many vendors will be 
offering special Phase III discounts. 

The headquarters hotel is the HYATT REGENCY WOODFIELD in SCHAUMBURG, Illinois. A limited number of rooms 
will be available for early registrants at $57 per night, single or double occupancy. The hotel is about a 15 minute ride from 
Chicago's O'Hare Airport. 

Conference Dates: Friday, October 2 through Sunday, October 4, 1987 

SAVE BY REGISTERING EARLY and also BE ONE OF THE FIRST 200 to get in on the special luncheon. To guarantee 
your registration at the lowest EARLY BIRD RATE, send your $100 non-refundable deposit now! (The remainder of the 
registration fee will be due no later than July 1 .) 

Conference fee 

Companion fee (banquet, reception 
and exhibition only) 

Before APRIL 15 

$ 60 

Before July 1 

$ 60 

After July 1 

$ 75 

This conference is being sponsored by TAU. For more information about the TAU users group for business and 
professional users of Apple's, write to: 

TAU c/0 Lavona Rann 1113 Wheaton Oaks Drive Wheaton, IL 60187 

For additonal conference information or to register, send this form to: 

PHASE ill, INC. C/0 Randall Jackson 1511 N. Bell Chicago, IL 60622 

Please Print: 







Phone ( ) 

□ I need hotel registration forms. 

a Check enclosed. 

□ I wish to exhibit. 


April, 1987 ON THREE 

Fyiiaflr© ©If ^h 

As part of the Phase HI Conference and Exhibition scheduled for October 2 through 4, 1987 in 
Chicago, I am organizing a panel discussion about potential enhancements of the Apple ///, 
including add on's for the Apple /// and perhaps new computers which will be compatible with 
existing software for the Apple //A To prepare for this panel discussion, I am collecting wish 
lists. Please tell me what hardware products you want to see produced either as an improvement 
for the Apple /// you now have or as a feature of a new machine. 

What do you wish your machine could do that it cannot do now? 

Please limit your suggestions to hardware or SOS enhancements and try to make your requests 
performance specific, not device specific. For example, don't phrase it like this: "I want a Whiz- 
Bang Industries, Lie. Thunderbolt 409." Instead, please write your request like this: "I wish we 
had a hydrolic turboincabulator that filtered the bit-spliced line frequencies, like the 
Thunderbolt 409 does for that other computer." Also, estimate the amount of money you are 
willing to pay for such an enhancement. To isolate the value of each individual improvement, 
assume that your requested improvement will be made available as an enhancement to an existing 
Apple /// and will NOT use an expansion slot. 

Even if you know someone else who has already written and mentioned the improvement you 
want for your computer, please let me know what you want anyway. It is as important to know 
how many people want an item as it is to know what is wanted. 

Once youVe completed your wish Ust, mail it to me at either of the following addresses: 

Chris Acreman Chris Acreman, PE, RPS 

1 3805 Windmill Circle Acreman Engineering 

Pflugerville, Texas 78660 300 E. Huntland Drive, Suite 21 5 

Austin, Texas 78752 

Or you can send your wish lists to me by CompuServe's EMAIL [72747,3060] or to my mailbox 
on the ///'s Company bulletin board [(804) 747-8752, half-duplex, 7 bits, odd parity, 300 or 

With these wish lists as a starting point, the discussion between a panel of experts and users in the 
audience should result in a synthesis of ideas. After the seminar, developers will have a clear 
idea of what the market is and users will have an idea of what they can reasonably expect from 
developers in the future. Thank you in advance for your input, help and cooperation in making 
this a success. 

Chris Acreman 

Organizer, "Future of the I IT Panel Discussion 

1987 Phase EI Conference and Exhibition 

ON THREE April,1987 17 

PKASO/U Command Module 

Earl T Brelje 

Desktop Manager PKASO/U Cominand List Module by Earl T. Brelje 
Copyright (c) 1987 by ON THREE 

Written by Earl T. Brelje with the help of the sample module and the ASCII 
conversion table. Module written by Bob Consorti. Portions of each were used 
to create this module. 

This module displays a list of the PKASO/U commands. It's easier to use 
this Desktop module than to get the book out each time you need to know one. 

This module can also be used to keep commands handy for any other program 
you own which doesn't provide built-in help screens. Simply replace the 
PKASO/U data with the data for your application. 







Enter Here 


07. ~ 



/Length of current module name, 
/Module name. May be up to 14 
/characters long. 

Equate and Macro Definitions; 









.BYTE 26. 

.BYTE %1 

.BYTE %2 

.MACRO Normal 

.BYTE 17. 


/Call number for a SOS Read. 
/Call number for a SOS Write. 

/Used to make SOS calls. 

/End of macro definition. 

/Acts like Pascal's GOTOXY 
/Screens X position. 
/Screens Y position. 
/End of macro definition. 

/Sets normal screen. 

.MACRO Inverse 
.BYTE 18. 

/Sets inverse screen. 

~94Z changes the lead in for PAKSO/U before the data for these two 
screens. If you don't do this you will not believe what will be printed when 
the PKASO/U starts getting this stuff. 

Write Data 

GotoXY 01., 01, 

/Starting screen location 01,04 


April,1987 ON THREE 

Macro Manager allows you 
to define a single keypress as 
a series of keystrokes to be 
played back anytime. You 
can also record over 2,000 
keystrokes as you type and 
invoke them later by press- 
ing one key. One Macro- 
Map™ can hold 50 defined 
keys, called macros. With 
Macro Manager, you can 
create up to 200 different 
MacroMaps which are easily 
selected from a menu, so 
you need never retype re- 
petitive text again. Let the 
Desktop Manager's Macro 
Manager do it for you. Only 
$44.95 plus $3 s/h. 

ON THREE Presents, . . 

Macro Manager 

Macro Manager 

Solid Apple Definitions 

Keypad Definitions 

[A] [N] 



[B] [0] ON THREE 



[C] [P] 



[D] Dear Subscriber, [Q] 

[ ; ] Dear Sir/Madam 


[E] [R] 



[F] [S] Sincerely, 



[G] [T] 



[H] [U] 



[I] [V] 



[J] [W] 



[K] [X] 


[.] March 1987 

[L] [Y] 
[M] [Z] 

[ ] 

(5? = Help 

MacroMap: Your MacroMap 

Escape to Activate Macros and Exit. Macro Manager written by Rob Turner V1 .0 


01., 02. 


" 1 PKASO/U Commands | 
01. ,03. 



" 1 Print Styles ~aO 



End 1 ' 


01. ,04. 


" 1 Underline 



-20 r 


01. ,05. 


"1 Boldface 



-40 1' 


01. ,06. 


" 1 Subscript 



-60 1' 


01. ,07. 


" 1 Superscript 



-80 1' 


01. ,08. 


"1 Italics 



-loo r 


01. ,09. 


" 1 Double Strike 



-120 I' 


01. ,10. 


" 1 Proportional 



-140 1 


01. ,11. 




01., 12. 


" 1 SuperFont Characters ~aS 


01. ,13. 


"1 -OS selects font in /// 

memory | 



01. ,14. 


" 1 ~2S most recently 

used Superfont | 



01. ,15. 


"1 ~4S font in PKASO/U memory 




01. ,16. 


"1 ~8S scr font into 


memory | 



01., 17. 


" 1 ~16S font from driver to 




01. ,18. 


" 1 ~S switch to normal pri 

nter font I " 

ON THREE April, 1987 


Len Write Data 


01. ,19. 

"I add 1 to a 

01. ,20. 

"I SuperFont printing 

01. ,21. 

for high density 

^-Write Data 

/Number of bytes to write. 

W2 Data 












Printing Size 







= 5 CPI 
= 10 CPI 
= 16.5 CPI 


~aZ change leadin character 


a = Ascii numeric code 


~aM Send escape codes to printer 


~M Send just escape 




ON THREE Presents . . 

ASCn Chart 

Ascii Cor 
Dec Hex Cr 

iversion Table 
Dec Hex Cr 



Dec Hex Cr 

Dec Hex Cr 

Dec Hex Cr 

Dec Hex Cr 

00 NDL 


13 DC3 

38 : 











114 72 r 

1 01 SOH 


14 DC4 

39 : 











115 73 8 

2 02 STX 


15 NAK 

40 : 












116 74 t 

3 03 ETX 


16 SYN 

41 : 











117 75 u 

4 04 EOT 


17 ETB 

42 : 












118 76 V 

5 05 ENQ 


18 CAN 

43 : 












119 77 w 

6 06 ACK 


19 EM 

44 : 












120 78 X 

7 07 BEL 



45 : 












121 79 y 

8 08 BS 



46 : 












122 7A z 

9 09 HT 



47 : 












123 7B { 

10 OA LF 



48 : 











124 7C 1 

11 OB VT 



49 : 












125 7D } 

12 OC FF 



50 : 












126 7E - 

13 OD CR 


20 SP 

51 : 












127 7F DEL 

14 OE SO 


21 ! 

52 ; 












15 OF SI 


22 " 

53 : 













16 10 DLE 


23 # 

54 : 












for more 

17 11 DCl 


24 $ 

55 . 













18 12 DC2 


25 % 

56 , 












to leave. 

This Desktop Manager mod- 
ule lists the decimal, hexi- 
decimal and corresponding 
character values of all ASCII 
keyboard characters. A sec- 
ond screen shows the deci- 
mal and hexidecimal equiva- 
lents of keypresses which 
include the control key. This 
keypress table can be invalua- 
ble when you need to know 
printer commands to enable 
different printer modes. The 
ASCII table is a necessary 
tool for programmers of all 
skill levels. Why not have 
them both at your finger- 
tips? Only $9.95 plus $3 s/h. 


April, 1987 ON THREE 

Len W2 Data 


40. ,14. 

"I -Z restore PKASO/U to initial 

40. ,15. 

" I settings 

40. ,16. 


40. ,17. 


40. ,18. 


40. ,19. 


40. ,20. 


40. ,21. 
^-W:^ Data 

/Number of bytes to write. 

Switch back to normal PKASO/U operation. 

; Below are the SOS call paramater tables, 







Write Data 








W2 Data 


Read List 








/Number of parameters for 

/write . 

/Console reference number. 

/Pointer to the data. 

/Number of characters to write. 

/Number of parameters for 
/write . 

/Parameter for a Read call. 
/Console reference number. 
/Pointer to key buffer. 
/We want one key. 
/Number of bytes returned. 

/Leave space for two bytes 
/in case the console is in 
/two byte read mode. 

/Below is the main entry point for the module. 





Write Ref 


W2 ReT 


Write, Write List 


Write, W2 List 



Read,Rea"3 List 


Ret Count 





/Store console reference 
/number in both SOS call 
/parameter lists. 

/Write first half of message. 
/Write second half of message, 
/Ask for a key. 
/See if we have received one. 
/No key has been hit so 
/ask again. 

/User has hit a key so leave. 

/End of the module. 


ON THREE April, 1987 


Smart users select the 

Selector /// 

The smart Program Switching utility 

from ON THREE 

• Switch to Selector /// now 

• Ideal for UniDisk or hard disk systems 

• Compatible with more than two dozen 
major Apple /// applications 

• AppleWriter /// 

• Business Basic 

• Haba Merge 

• VisiCalc 

• /// E-Z Pieces 

. . .and more ^ 3 M plus S7 s/h 

Selector/// is a state-of-the art program switcher. 

A program switcher is a utiiity that functions as your 
computerized personal secretary. Its purpose is to make 
instantly available to you, without rebooting, a wide 
range of applications programs stored on your hard disk 
or high capacity floppy (such as UniOisk). Programs such 
as AppleWriter ///, Quick File /// and more than two 
dozen others. 

Each time you require a different application, just tell 
your personal secretary. Selector///, with a couple of 
keystrokes, and it will be there in a couple of seconds. 
IMo need to find your way through sub-direaories or 
paw through a stack of floppies. 

\X^en you start your system up in the morning, just 
boot Selector/// and that's it for the day. Smart users 
are switching to and with Selector/// now. 

Selector /// $99 tm 

ipping & handling 

ON THREE 1805)644-3514 
P.O. Box 3825 
Ventura, CA 93006 

Send nne . 

.Selector Ills 

Address . 

State . 


. Phone . 

D enclosed $ . 

D M/C D Visa D AE* 

. exp. date . 


*3% surcharge on American Express 
California residents add 6% sales tax. 


Richard and Lavona Rann 

Serious Problems In the /// Community 

For a number of months we've been telling you how great you 
are, but new problems have come to our attention. We are not 
going to take back all of those nice things we said. We meant 
them and still do. But there are problems creeping into our 
community and no matter how hard it is to admit they exist, 
ignoring them will not make them disappear. Our more than four 
years' experience with the /// community has impressed us with 
the overall integrity and good sense of most of our fellow ///er's. 
Now that is being challenged by the actions of what we hope is a 
small group for one type of problem and a misunderstanding by 
what appears to be a much wider group for the second. 

The smaller problem is that of basic honesty. TAU and several 
of the businesses supporting the /// have often worked in a 
friendly, basically non-businesslike way in supporting those 
with /// emergencies by mailing things on the basis of a promise 
that the check would be in the mail that day. Many, many ///er's 
have benefited from- that practice and have faithfully paid and 
spread the word about the good service they were provided. 
Recently, the viability of this approach has been killed by a few 
people's lack of integrity. There is not a lot a community like 
ours can do about dishonesty of this type except be understanding 
when the providers require payment before service in all cases. 
This is a loss to all of us. It will be especially painful to some 
of us when we need things from providers who cannot accept 
credit cards and must wait to get a check (and maybe for it to 
clear) before sending us what we need. If you need a block editor, 
backup disk drive or whatever, you may want to consider this and 
order before an emergency occurs. 

The other problem is less specific and covers a topic we have all 
heard about: illegal software copying. Recently, one of the /// 
software developers shared his feelings with us about illegal 
copying of his programs. "It's gotten so bad that people are 
calling me asking for the manuals for the programs they've 
copied. Some of them expect me not to charge for the solution 
to problems they encounter running pirated copies of my 
programs." We had to agree that it is discouraging to try so hard 
to make a business work and watch all that money slip away 
because of illegal copying. Not just discouraging, but financially 

The problem runs much deeper than just our friend's problems 
with pirated software. It threatens the viability of our communi- 
ty. It should be no smprise to anyone that it takes money to 
write/develop, market and service commercial software and hard- 
ware. That money comes from sales. It is as simple as that. 

There is no such thing as a free lunch. Public domain software 
cannot fill the void and isn't really free anyway. The Apple /// 
community is viable only because people can make a profit 
supplying goods and services. There are people in the communi- 
ty willing to pay their money for products devoted to the Apple 
///. When that money stops, the community will die. At that 
point the Apple /// will be the same excellent computer that it 
has always been; the difference will be that it will be obsolete. 
No new programs will be generally available and the future will 
soon pass it by. 

In 1986 we saw some of the difficulties created by tight markets. 
One of our suppliers. Titan Engineering, went into Chapter 1 1 
bankruptcy. We won't claim that their problems stem from sales 
of their He emulation board, but that certainly is a factor. More 
recentiy Charlie McConathy left the Apple /// hard disk business. 
His difficulty is that he can no longer get Apple /// controller 
boards made at a reasonable price. Neither of these examples has 
anything to do with piracy problems, nor was there any way for 
the /// community to prevent them, but they do illustrate how 
economic pressures are shrinking our community in ways we 
cannot control. 

There is an area over which we do have control. It is related to 
the illegal software issue. An individual can make a difference. It 
would be too easy to say, "Don't make copies;" that would do 
little good and we don't condemn all software copying. What we 
advocate is paying for the software you use. Everyone likes to 
see new and different software. Each of us likes to try a new 
program. It is inevitable that some programs will be copied. 
This can be good because it spreads the word about the newest 
software and gives users a chance to personally see what it does. 
People who take a pirated copy and use it as more than a demo 
are breaking a trust. If a copied piece of software is useful, and 
important, buy it Vote with your dollars for the community. 
Support the marketers and developers so they can afford to 
provide more things for us all in the future. Whatever you do, do 
not ask for service when you have not paid your share of the 
development costs. 

We know that the world isn't as simple as all this. There are 
problems with software makers, with discontinued software, with 
programs that are no longer supported and we recognize a 
growing gray area for which copying is sometimes the only 
answer. Yet it is important not to penalize those still supporting 
the Apple /// because of the shortcomings of others. There is no 
doubt that Apple /// developers and supporters deserve your 
backing. If you get a piece of copied software, demo it and decide 
for yourself if it is something you need. If it isn't, there is 

ON THREE April,1987 


How many dollars 

have you invested in your Apple ///? 

Answer this questionnaire and find out Kiow to extend your computer's life: 
• Do you vacuum your office or home less than twice a day? DYES DNO 

• Are there smolcers in your office or household? DYES DNO 

• Are there children in your household? DYES DNO 

• Is the computer located in a family room or other high traffic area? DYES DNO 

If you answered "yes" to one or more of the above 
questions, then you need to protect your investment with 
an ON THREE Dust Cover. 

ON THREE |805| 644-3514 

P.O. Box 3825 

Ventura, CA 93006 

Rend me Apple /// dust nnvers 

Dust Cover for Apple /// and 



Send me Apple ///-Pmfile riii.sT nnvers 




Dust Cover for Profile, 

Apple /// and Monitor /// 


Plus S2 Shipping and i-landling each 

Rtate Zip Phnne 
n ennlnsed S 

D M/C D Visa D AE* 

number exp. date 


*3% surcharge on American Express. California residents add 6% sales tax. 

nothing lost. Most software authors want users to be satisfied 
with their software. Try it and if it doesn't measure up, write 
over the diskette. But if it does, pay for it. 

Whatever you do, remember that your actions will make a 
difference. Think twice before loaning software to a friend. If 
they want a demo or need a quick fix, couldn't you do it for 
them? Do not encourage others to fall down in their fair share of 
support to the community. We are already almost too small to 
support magazines, developers and viable user groups. Every 
person and every dollar count. If you feel you need to loan 
someone a copy, be certain they understand that you expect them 
to buy the original and don't loan it if you think they won't. 

Some of you would be surprised at the number of calls the 
various /// helplines get from people wanting manuals for things 
that are still supported or at least still for sale. A good number 
of the software calls to our helphne concern things that are very 
clearly stated in the manual. We get some very interesting 
answers when we ask if the callers have the manual. Yes, there 
are some legitimate reasons why someone may not have a 
manual. We bought a copy of Draw ON /// from someone 
selling their /// and never got a manual. When we finally move 
up to the 512K upgrade, we will send in our original diskettes 
for Draw ON /// and offer to purchase a manual. If you have a 
legitimate copy of software, i.e. original diskettes and a bill of 
sale, most vendors will work something out for you. Don't copy 
your manuals for others if the vendor is still in business! 

We haven't addressed legitimate or at least quasi-legal copying 
issues. Basically, we're not lawyers and we don't want to be sued. 
There is quite a bit of /// software that is no longer supported and 
the vendors have gone out of business. The developers and sellers 
of those products probably don't deserve the same degree of 
ongoing support from us that our active developers do. It is a 
tough decision in some cases. We have wondered, more than 
once, whether HABA wouldn't have come up with an upgrade to 
/// E-Z Pieces if they had gotten checks from all the people who 
are now using copies of that program. It is worth thinking about. 

In the end we have a group of concerns of equal importance to 
providers and users. The groups are intricately involved with each 
other because each group's success depends on the support of the 
other. Profits for providers are tied to providing a useful service. 
When the user receives the service without paying, he is denying 
his responsibihty to the community and opening the door for 
others to do the same. Each provider which goes out of business 
or stops serving the /// community is probably a permanent loss. 

We know a few people in the community who always buy one of 
everything from selected providers, just to encourage them to 
keep doing more. We can't all afford to do that, but we have to do 
what we can to help keep the /// market viable. Taking a 
collective stand against inappropriate copying would be a big 
positive step. We will, ultimately, dictate the type of support we 
get by the type of support we give. 



April,1987 ON THREE 

Copy /// 

Edward N. Gooding, Sr. 

A One-Pass 140K Floppy Copier 

If you have 256K of memory but only one disk drive, this is the 
copy program for you! It reads the entire source disk into 
memory (hence the need for 256K) and then allows you to make 
multiple copies directly from memory without re-reading the 
source disk. It will also format diskettes and is very fast, even 
though it does read- and write-verify all sectors. It will also copy 
unprotected Apple II disks for you, but will not copy anything 
that is copy protected because it is a sector copier, not a nibble 
copier. This is the ultimate copy utility at this time for Apple /// 
owners with 256K but only the internal disk drive. No more 
floppy elbow from swapping source and destination disks! The 
program supports "round robin" copying, is friendly and easy to 
use. In fact, I think most people could use it successfully 
without any documentation. 

The program is produced by Digital Microware, P.O. 2508, Seal 
Beach, CA 90740, telephone (714) 855-0555. The cost is 
$49.95. It is also sold by Blytheco, 22952 Alcalde Drive, Suite 
100, Laguna Hills, CA 92653, telephone (714) 583-0424 for 
$45.95. Blytheco offers full system support as well as other 
Apple /// products. 

Copy /// is not copy protected, although it comes with dire 
warnings about not changing anything on the disk. The main 
program is written in Business BASIC and makes use of several 
assembler invokables. Though it is not copy protected, the 
authors did list-protect the programs in a creative way. If you'd 
like to learn how to list, modify and install this program under 
an interpreter switcher hke Catalyst or Selector, then read on. 

Making Copy /// Catalyst-Compatible 

After playing with Copy /// for a while, trying to make it 
compatible with Catalyst Version 2.1, I finally succeeded in 
getting it to boot from Catalyst and return to it after the SHIFT 
Q keypress. I have also reduced the elapsed time of the boot by 
removing the "advertising" code from the boot process. 

Copy /// 5.0 is really just a Business BASIC program which 
makes liberal use of five assembler language invokables to copy 
floppy diskettes. The folks at Digital MicroWare also did a few 
primitive but cute tricks to frustrate the casual ///er who might 
try to snoop around in the program. First of all, they must have 
zapped the Basic 1.1 interpreter, because the Hello program on 
the diskette is titled "WORMS." In fact, the volume name is 
/THE.GARDEN, and the actual Copy /// program is titled 
"SPIDERS." The font files are "SOIL" and "BUTTERFLY," and 

the invokables are "TULIPS.INV" (a font file retrieverAoader), 
"MUSHROOMS.INV" (a reset key lock and rebooter module), 
INY" (disk read, write and format invokables-I haven't figured 
out which is which, yet). These folks must be organic gardeners. 

Here's how to modify the program to boot from Catalyst. First, 
create a subdirectory under Catalyst to store the Copy /// files. 
Next, copy the following files from the Copy /// diskette to the 
Catalyst subdirectory: TULIPS.INV, POTATOS.INV, LET- 

In addition to these files from the Copy /// diskette, you will 
probably want to copy a standard font from your Business Basic 
diskette to this subdirectory. Copy /// uses custom fonts and, if 
you don't load a more standard font before exiting back to 
Catalyst, you will see some cute tricks performed by your 
Catalyst menu; nothing destructive, but distracting nonetheless. 

If you want, you can rename TULIPS to FONTS and BUTTER- 
FLY to COPY///, but remember to make the corresponding 
changes in SPIDERS as you change the program listed below. If 
you discover the functions of POTATOS, LETTUCE and 
CARROTS before I do, please let me know. You don't need the 
SOS system files, the MUSHROOMS.INV (we will replace it 
with the BYE verb to exit BASIC and re-enter Catalyst if you 
have BASIC Version 1.23 Ax), WORMS (just advertising 
anyway) or SOIL (font file for WORMS). 

Now comes the somewhat tricky part. We must unprotect 
SPIDERS and modify it slighUy. Boot BASIC and load .Dl/SPI- 
DERS from the Copy /// boot diskette. Try to list the program. 
Nothing happens, right? Somehow those rascals have devised a 
way to prevent you from listing their program. (Shades of Beagle 
Bros.) If you try to randomly Ust specific line numbers, you will 
find that you can list parts of the program, but then the screen 
goes crazy again after a short time. Why? Because they have 
imbedded control codes in the program which alter the characters 
on the screen! If you try to open a printer file in immediate mode 
and list the program to your printer, your printer will go crazy as 
well. The control codes are doing this. So try Usting the program 
to a disk file. Voila! The ASCII file created by the program 
Usting can then be edited with Apple Writer /// or any other word 
processor. To hst the BASIC program to a disk file, type the 
following instructions in immediate mode (without line 



ON THREE April, 1987 


can name it anything you like. 

Boot Apple Writer and load your listing of SPIDERS. See the 
REM statement at the beginning of the program? See the control 
codes after it which create a window one character wide and long? 
No wonder you can't see the program Usting! No wonder your 
printer goes crazy! Now use the Find (CONTROL F) function 
to find all occurrences of "REM" and then delete each REM 
statement from the program. Don't try to include the control 
characters in your [F]ind because the program's authors have 
placed random spaces between them. Simply locate the REM's 
and delete the offending characters. Fortunately, or unfortunately 
depending on how you view it, the authors only used REM's in 
this program to prevent you fi"om listing it. Therefore, you will 
find all of them very quickly by performing [F]: /REM/. 

Next, modify the reboot routine near the beginning of the 
program. Remove the code which prints the "Insert a System 
disk and press 'RETURN' to reboot:", accepts the keypress, tests 
it for a RETURN and then PERFORMS REBOOT. 

Replace it with an INVOKE of the TULIPS/FONTS .INV, a 
LOAD of the standard font from your BASIC diskette and then 
the BYE verb. This return you to Catalyst. You will have to 
code the INVOKE TULIPS. INV statement, but you can copy the 
from just below in the program where the BUTTERFLY/ 
COPYHI font is loaded. 

The only other change to the program code is to add an INVOKE 
TULIPS.INV to the beginning of the code to load the BUTTER- 
FLY/COPYIII font. This invokable was supposed to be loaded 
by the WORMS/HELLO program, but since we elected not to 
use this program, we will have to add the invoke to SPIDERS 
here as well as above. If you renamed the TULIPS.INV and 
BUTTERFLY files, don't forget to change the two lines which 
reference them at the beginning of the program. 

Below are Ustings of the beginning of SPIDERS/HELLO, both 
the original version and my altered version. 

This is how the program appears after being stripped of its 

102 CLEAR 

103 DIM A%(512):GOTO 116 
105 HOME:VPOS=24:HPOS=l 

107 PRINT"Insert a System disk and press RETU 

RN to Reboot:"; 
109 CLEAR:DEL 116,3221:REM This is cute, a se 

If-deletion step? 
Ill GET k$ 

113 IF ASC(k$)<>13 THEN 111 
115 PERFORM reboot: REM Performed from the mus 

hrooms.inv subroutine. 

116 ON ERR GOTO 3185 

HR$ (34) +FONT$+CHR$ (34) 


119 INVOKE"potatos.inv", "carrots . inv", "lettuc 
e . inv" f "mushrooms . inv" 

This is the beginning of the program as I use it from Catalyst: 










CLEAR: REM Unchanged 

DIM A%(512):GOTO 115:REM Changed the GOTO 
from 116 to 115 

INVOKE"fonts.inv":REM Add this to reset f 

ont before leaving 


HR$ (34)+F0NT$+CHR$(34) :REM Add 



BYE: REM Add to exit Basic and re-enter th 

e Catalyst menu 

ON ERR GOTO 3185 :REM This was 116, change 
d it to 115 

INV0KE"fonts. inv" :REM Add this since we w 
on't use WORMS (Was tulips. inv) 
HR$ (34)+F0NT$+CHR$(34) :REM Change font fi 
le name from Butterflies if you wish. 

INVOKE"potatos . inv" , "carrots . inv" , "lettuc 
e. inv": REM Remove the mushrooms . inv refer 
ence; we don't need it since we'll use BY 
E, instead. 

Everything below 1 19 is unchanged. 

Save the file back to disk and re-boot Basic. Type "NEW" to 
clear memory, then type "EXEC ASCII.FILE.NAME", where 
ASCII.FILE.NAME is the name of the SPIDERS listing file 
which you edited with Apple Writer. This will convert the pro- 
gram back to a normal BASIC program. Now, save the BASIC 
program to your Catalyst/Copy .HI subdirectory as HELLO. 

Boot the Catalyst Editor and edit the menu to add a reference to 
Copy ///. The interpreter pathname is .PROFILE/CATALYST/ 
BASIC. (I upgraded to version 1.23 Ax with no problems-you 
need it to use the BYE verb anyway.) The prefix is the sub- 
directory the Copy /// files are stored in. The program prefix is 
the HELLO program (formerly SPIDERS) in the Copy /// 

Booting Copy /// from the Catalyst menu will now take you di- 
recdy to the Copy /// function screen where you can start copy- 
ing immediately. Pressing SHIFT Q will take you immediately 
back to the Catalyst menu. 



April, 1987 ON THREE 

One, Two, /// Forum 

Odds and Ends 

First of all, I am interested in buying Draw ON ///, but before I 
do, I'd like to know whether it works with an MX- 100 printer 
connected to a UPIC card. I have tried to use the graphics mode 
on my printer with minimal luck. When I send a 16^0 to the 
printer while it is in graphics mode, it goes crazy. I experimented 
a bit with my printer before sending this and I think Pascal 
assumes the printer is a text file and grabs the 16 as a DLE-blank 
code. No matter what I do, including using UnitWrite, the 16 
causes a problem. However, Business BASIC presents no 
problems. Help! If all goes well in solving this difficulty and 
they'll work with my printer, I'd like to order Draw ON /// and 
the Graphics Manager. Also, can I use the Gameport /// and 
Apple n joystick with Draw ON ///? 

You may be interested in a Pascal program I've written which 
searches through all block devices trying to find a file name. For 
example, if you enter =On=, the program prints the entire 
pathname, creation date and size of any file which has the two 
letters "ON" in the name. My program also searches sub- 
directories because I don't like trying to find a file using System 
Utilities or the Pascal Filer when I can't quite remember the file 
name or pathname. So if you'll send me a copy of your author 
guidelines, I'll submit this program for you to publish. 

While writing the program mentioned above, I was trying to 
correctly print the file type and ran into an inconsistency between 
your Disk Manager and System UtiUties. I wrote a small 
program which created dummy files with each file having a 
consecutively higher file type value starting with 0. The 
inconsistency appears with RPS Data and RPS Index. Disk 
Manager lists them as having file types 13 and 14 and System 
Utilities with file types 16 and 17. System Utilities also has 
four additional types: AFDiscard, AFModel, AFReptFmt and 
ScreenLib. It probably doesn't make any difference, but I thought 
I'd bring it to your attention. 

And finally, could you send to me or print in a future issue a Ust 
of the latest version numbers of Apple /// software? I used to 
maintain the operating system of Digital Equipment's PDP-11 
series computers and I was impressed with their upgrade notices. 
With DEC I always knew I had the latest and greatest version and 
didn't have to worry about knowing whether or not a new version 
had been released without my knowing. Thanks for a great 

Robert C. Sudduth 


Draw ON III will work perfectly with a UPIC card and your 
printer. When ordering Draw ON III, however, you must specify 
the Epson Version. This version is the only one which will 
work with your printer. However, neither Gameport III nor the 
Apple II joystick works with Draw ON III. 

The problem you're having with the 16 jq command is that it is 
illegal. Pascal intercepts this command before it can reach your 
printer. Therefore, you should check in any of the available 
Pascal manuals to learn how to send a legal command which will 
do what you want. 

A version of the Pascal program you've written and submitted is 
already on the market. It is called "Find Files" and is provided 
with Pascal Version 1.3, which is available from Sun Systems 
Remarketing, P.O. Box 4059, Logan, UT 84321, telephone 
(801) 752-7631. But even though for that reason I cannot 
publish your program, I am including a copy of the author 
guidelines anyway in hopes that you will continue to write 
programs and submit them for possible publication. There are 
not many Apple III programmers left, so I do my best to 
encourage anyone who is interested in programming for the III. If 
anyone else reading this column would like a copy of the author 
guidelines, call or write and ON THREE will forward a copy to 
you immediately. 

I have contacted David Ottalini of Washington Apple Pi's Apple 
III SIG and he is compiling a list of the latest versions of Apple 
III software. So as soon as he gathers the necessary information, 
it will be published in this magazine. 

And thank you for your observations about the Disk Manager. 
We'll incorporate your suggestions and many others we have 
received since the program's release in the next update. 


John Morrison's letter in the January 1987 issue of ON THREE 
got my hackles up. Again. What on earth is the problem? What 
is difficult about Access ///? 

Access /// provides nearly perfect emulation of the ubiquitous 
DEC VT-100 terminal, and the emulation is even better than 
advertised. My university's mainframe has a front-end processor 
(Yale ASCII Terminal Emulation Program) that lets selected 
terminals pretend to be full-screen 327x terminals. With Access 
///, and by telling the front end that I am a VT-100, my Apple /// 
has all the features of a directly connected 3278 - including all 
12 PF keys. With Access /// command files, I can automatically 

ON THREE April, 1987 


set up my communications parameters and go through the log-in 
sequence for any service, whether my university mainframe or 
CompuServe, without having to have a Hayes modem. 

No other Apple /// telecommunications product provides both 
terminal emulation and general command files. The other 
products (that I know of) have no terminal emulation. If they 
have any automatic facilities, they are keyed to the Hayes 
command set and they cannot go through a complete log-in 
sequence for a general telecommunications service. But no matter 
the product, there is nothing especially difficult about using it 
with an Apple ///. 

Allan M. Bloom 
Blacksburg, VA 

/ have been shamelessly allowing some ON THREE contributors 
to frighten the readership of ON THREE without giving an op- 
posing viewpoint regarding communications packages generally 
and Access HI particularly. The time is now and the viewpoint is 
Mr. Bloom's. I hope this helps to even the score. 

Grueling Graphics 

I have owned Apple /// computer systems since 1983 and have 
found them to be fast, reliable and responsive machines. Lack of 
software for specific purposes, however, has left me frustrated at 
times. After reading your magazine since August, I have 
accumulated some questions which I hope you can help me with. 

First of all, I am having trouble finding a good graphics package 
for my C. Itoh 1550 printer, which I understand is a wide 
carriage version of the ProWriter. I am currently in engineering 
school, so I need such features as log-log and semi-log plots. It 
would also be very helpful if there were an easy way to load 
VisiCalc data into the program. I have found programs that 
provide parts of what I need (Business Graphics and Graph & 
Gale), but no program that fills the whole bill. My question is 
this: is there a program out there that will work with Draw ON 
/// to take care of the needs described above? The ideal program 
would have Business BASIG's file loading abilities, Graph & 
Gale's scientific plots and the ability to use Draw ON ///"s 
superior graphics. Also, will the Desktop Manager system 
eventually support an under $2,000 laser printer? 

My next question deals with data bases. In your August 1986 
issue, Omnis 3 was reviewed. Judging by what I read of it in the 
review, Omnis 3 sounds like the exact data base I need. Do you 
know who sells it? How much does it cost? Is it copy-protected? 
If so, what provisions does it have for backup? 

Any help in answering the above questions is appreciated. 

Robert Stanley 
Pardeeville, WI 

I'm sorry to tell you this, but no program exists for the III which 
will do everything you want it to do. The best thing I can 

recommend is that you continue using the programs you 
currently use to produce your desired charts and graphs. 

But there is good news. The Desktop Manager will work with 
any printer you attach to your III. As long as you have the 
appropriate driver in your Ill's driver file to make the laser printer 
run with the III, the Desktop Manager will work flawlessly. 

Omnis 3 is currently being sold by D A Datasystems. For more 
information about that program, contact: 

D A Datasystems 
3792 Windover Drive 
Hamburg, NY 14075 

Telephone: (716) 648-2462 

Denticulate Postulate 

Our company was formed for the purpose of developing and 
marketing software to be used for the management of dental 
offices, using the Apple /// as our computer. Our dental 
management system was sold to four dental offices prior to 
Apple's withdrawing support for the Apple ///. In spite of the 
lack of support from Apple, our system is still being used in 
three offices and manages the practices of four dentists. 

After reading the article "Block_Write" by Bob Consorti and " Ap- 
ple.Sauce" by yourself in the November 1986 and January 1987 
issues of ON THREE, it would seem to me that our software 
may be easily adapted to the EOS. If this is possible, it would 
give us the advantage of utilizing a faster computer and perhaps a 
fast tape backup. This would not only be an advantage to the 
dentists who presently use our system on the Apple /// (which 
has been an excellent computer for us), but perhaps also an 
advantage to us because our software may again be marketed. 

I would like to obtain a manual or literature which details the 
changes necessary to convert programs written in Pascal for the 
Apple /// to Pascal programs for the IIGS. I would very much 
appreciate it if you could advise me where I may obtain such a 
manual or literature. Our software uses the Apple Record 
Processing Services (RPS) system for file handling. Gan you tell 
me if the IIGS is able to use that system? Gan you also tell me if 
the IIGS is able to run software written for the Apple /// such as 
QuickFile, Word Juggler and VisiGalc? 

Thank you in advance. 

Grant Jorgenson 
Galgary, Alberta 

ON THREE'S programmers program in Assembly language, 
which is immediately transferable to the IIGS. However, since 
you program in Pascal, you're going to have to wait to port your 
programs over until a version of Pascal is released for the IIGS. 
Two different Pascal versions are currently underproduction. One 


April, 1987 ON THREE 

is called TML Pascal and the other UCSD Pascal. Bob Consortia 
president of ON THREE, recommends the latter, produced by 
Pecan Software Systems, Inc. Their address and telephone 
number are: 

Apple Computer 
ATTN: Developer Relations 
20525 Mariani Avenue 
Cupertino, CA 95014 

Pecan Software Systems, Inc. 
1410 39th Street 
Brooklyn, NY 11218 

Telephone: (718) 851-3100 

Telephone: (408) 996-1010 
I'm sure they will be able and willing to help you. 
Fun and Games 

They should be able to provide you with more information about 
a release date, etc. Neither Bob nor ON THREE programmer Tim 
Harrington think the Apple RPS system will work under the 
soon-to-be-released version of Pascal for the IIGS. But ask Pecan 
Software Systems anyway. They'll definitely know. 

Your Apple III Word Juggler program will run on the IIGS, but 
your VisiCalc and QuickFile programs will not. However, all is 
not lost. Your VisiCalc files can be used by many other spread- 
sheet programs being released for the IIGS. And your QuickFile 
files can be read by AppleWorks for the IIGS. 

If you'd like to obtain developer's information from Apple, you'll 
have to talk directly to them. They'll tell you all you need to 
know about becoming a software developer for the Apple IIGS. 
You can reach Apple's Developer Relations section at the 
following address and telephone number: 

After years of considering writing but feeling too 
unknowledgeable about the /// to formulate a sensible question, I 
am stimulated by the recent changes in the magazine and the 
continued impressive product development to write and, if for no 
other reason, to simply thank you. My computer gets little use 
beyond word processing and an occasional game, and I have never 
made the time to study or use the /// to the degree which it 
deserves. I am always fascinated and stimulated by the ways in 
which others are utilizing it. 

The Beginning /// is great. For computer iUiterates such as 
myself, step-by-step explanations often open up possibilities 
that we did not know existed. Similarly your patient, careful 
answers to questions from beginners is invaluable. 

I've notice that there are some readers who like myself enjoy 
playing games on the ///. Maybe, for all of our benefits, you 

Products and Services 
Available for the Apple /// 

Current ON THREE Price List 

Product Price S/H 


Disk Of the Month $14.95 $2.00 

Two or more DOM's $12.50 ea $4.00 

/// E-Z Pieces $135.00 $3.50 

Apple Fortran /// (requires Pascal) $99.00 $5.00 

Selector /// program switching utility $99.00 $7.00 

Lazarus /// file recovery utility $49.95 $3.00 

Unprotect Driver $19.95 $2.00 

Desktop Manager $129.00 $6.00 

Desktop Manager/ON THREE O'clock 

combination $165.95 $8.00 

Disk Manager* (utilities) $44.95 $3.00 

Grafix Manager" $49.95 $3.00 

Macro Manager* $44.95 $3.00 

ASCII Conversion Table* $9.95 $3.00 

Draw ON/// $179.00 $5.00 

Draw ON /// Graphics Tablet Version $229.00 $5.00 

Fruit Machine (slot machine game) $19.95 $2.00 

Card Machine (blackjack game) $24.95 $2.00 

Fruit Machine/Card Machine 

combination $39.95 $3.00 

Sandman** (arcade game) $29.95 $2.00 

Crossword Scrambler $11.95 $2.00 

UniDisk lll.b disk and documentation only $60.00 $3.00 
Sider 10, 20mb 

Driver and documentation only $159.00 $3.00 




ON THREE O'clock 

Game Card /// + 

Apple //e Mouse and Interface card 

(Use with Draw ON and Desktop 

Apple /// UniDisk ///.5 (800K 3^/2" disk drive 

w/ interface, driver & documentation) $499.00 

Other Services and Products 



MicroSci A3 140K Disk Drive + 
MicroSci A143 560K Disk Drive + 
Reconditioned 51 2K Apple /// 

w/monitor /// 
256K Apple /// w/monltor 
51 2K Memory Upgrade, 256 to 51 2K 

(Remit $324 and $25 cash or $35 credit 

is rebated when old board is returned.) $324.00 
256K Memory Upgrade, 128 to 256K, 

no rebate $150.00 








51 2K or 256K Upgrade installation 

(by appointment only) 
12-issue ON THREE subscription 
ON THREE back issues 
ON THREE magazine binder 
Dust Cover for Apple /// and Monitor /// 
Dust Cover as above plus ProFile 
I V My Apple /// T-Shirts 

sm, med, Ig, x-lg 

yellow, blue, white, beige 
I V My Apple /// Sweat Shirts 

sm, med, Ig, x-lg 

yellow, blue, white, silver 
I T My Apple /// Caps 
'Background module for Desktop Manager 
**Runs as standalone or Desktop Manager module 
+Quantitv Limited 


$5.00 ea. 


$18 95 





To order, call toll-free (800) 443-8877 or In 
California (800) 331-1418. Send check or nnoney 
order to: 

ON THREE, Inc., Order Dept. 
Post Office Box 3825 
Ventura, CA 93006 

Visa, Mastercard, American Express accepted. 3% Surcharge on 
American Express orders. 

Items returned without prior authorization subject to 15% 
restocking charge. 

California Residents add 6% sales tax. 

All prices are subject to change without notice. 

ON THREE April, 1987 


could publish a list of purchasable games that are around or is 
what we see in your magazine all that there is? Speaking of 
games, I have a couple that I play in emulation mode. I have not 
been able, however, to save the game to return to it at the same 
point later. Is there a way around this problem? 

I also have a question about Apple Writer. I have been unable to 
figure out a way to underline a word preceding punctuation 
without either getting a space between them or underlining the 
punctuation mark as well. Is there a way that you know of doing 

I am considering purchasing a 512K Memory Upgrade from ON 
THREE. However, I have what is probably a not uncommon 
history which makes understanding how to go about getting the 
upgrade a bit difficult. I purchased one of the early 128K Apple 
///'s. A few years ago, I paid for a 256K upgrade which required 
installation by my local dealer. Now, please tell me what I am: 
(1) a 128K who needs your help and a bit more money to reach 
512K, or (2) a 256K who can do it at home and maybe even get 
a cash rebate for my efforts? 

Thanks again for a high-quality and reliably periodic pubhcation. 

David Hunter 
Minneapolis, MN 

Thank you for your kind words about ON THREE magazine. I 
have tried my best to improve it and appreciate your noticing and 
complimenting my efforts. 

The problem you've noticed with some of your games not being 
saveable for play later is that of the program itself You must 
consult the documentation or contact the manufacturer of each 
individual program to see whether it is capable of holding your 
place for later play. If it is unable to save your place, then the 
programmer who wrote it failed to program that function into the 
game. It is unfortunately unfixable except by the programmer or 
the company responsible for producing the software. 

The problem you're experiencing with Apple Writer, however, is 
common and easily solved, depending on the printer you have. 
What you need to do, after you have typed the second underline 
character and before you type the punctuation mark, is press 
CONTROL V and enter your printer's command code for a 
backspace. This code is mentioned in your printer's manual; 
every printer has different codes for a backspace, so I cannot tell 
you what yours is. Some cheaper printers don't allow for a 
backspace at all, so this procedure may not be possible for 
everyone. After entering the backspace code, press CONTROL 
V again. Finally, type the punctuation mark. Now when your 
printer goes to print your document, it will underline the word, 
leave a space where the underline token was, backspace as 
directed by the imbedded control command and then place the 
punctuation mark exactly where you want it, immediately after 
the underlined word. Simple. 

Another simple procedure is installing the 512K Memory 
Upgrade, which you will be able to do effortlessly. You, as your 
letter states, are a "256K who can do it at home." The directions 
which accompany the upgrade are easy to understand and follow, 
so I see no problem with any Apple III user, beginning or 
advanced, upgrading a system at home. And yes, you can return 
the old 256K board for cash or even ON THREE credit. 

I hope these answers help you. If you have any further questions 
or comments, please write again. Helping my magazine's readers 
solve their problems is the best part of my job. 

The Big Freeze 

Thank you for the update to my Word Juggler program. I know 
it will be a great advantage having the updated version when my 
Sider 10 arrives. However, I would like to address one problem I 
am having with my Apple ///. When I boot my Word Juggler 
disk, sometimes I receive the proverbial "System Failure" 
message with the symbol "$0F" at the end. This happens during 
booting and sometimes after I have entered a large document into 
memory. I was thinking about purchasing your Lazarus /// file 
recovery utility, but I'm not sure whether my problem would be 
solved by using such a program. The system just freezes, 
resulting in all kinds of work being eliminated. I don't think the 
problem is static related because my home is well insulated. 
Once as I was typing a document, the system froze with the 
cursor sitting in a stationary position; the blinking cursor 
simply was no more. This also happened while I was printing a 
document. I immediately rebooted the Word Juggler disk and my 
/// performed as if nothing had happened. 

This happens to me all the time. I never know when the system 
will freeze. I have narrowed the problem to two possibilities: 
either the computer has some bad chips or there is dust on my 
Word Juggler disk. I have eliminated the second possibility 
because my system has since failed when the drive was not 
operating and besides, if the disk was dusty I couldn't boot it. 
Therefore, I have concluded that one of the chips has become 
weak and needs assistance. Have you ever heard of a similar 
problem? Is it the disk or is one of the RAM chips going crazy? 

I have seen your advertisement for a RAM diagnostic disk. If I 
purchase and use this disk, will it check all of my system's 
RAM disks for proper functioning? And if so, do you sell the 
RAM chips to customers so they can replace the defective ones 

BUI Sharp 
Jonesboro, AR 

First of all, do you have a 512K Memory Upgrade installed on 
your computer? If so, use the disk you used to test the system 
after installing the upgrade to check the RAM. This should point 
to a defective chip if one is in fact defective. If you don't have 
512K yet, then you may want to order the RAM diagnostic disk. 


April, 1987 ON THREE 

Another answer to your problem could be loose chips on the 
motherboard, a frequent problem with Apple III computers which 
results in sporadic system failure. Either you or an authorized 
Apple III repair person could open your computer and gently 
press down on the motherboard's chips to make sure they are all 
firmly seated in the board. DO NOT press down on the chips on 
the 512K upgrade board; you may do more harm than good. If 
you do have the 512K Memory Upgrade , it is a relatively recent 
addition to your system and there should not be a problem with 

BUT BEFORE YOU DO ANYTHING, read Richard and Lavona 
Rann's "The Beginning III" article in this issue of ON THREE. 
In it they describe your problem exactly and present ways of 
solving it. 

lie or not lie . . . 

Your magazine's address was passed along to me by another 
Apple /// user. I have owned an Apple /// for five years now and 
intend to continue using it for some time to come. In fact, at 
this moment I also own a He and have just become the proud 
owner of a Macintosh Plus. 

The main reason I am writing, in addition to getting regular 
input from kindred spirits, is to find a solution to a minor 
problem which I am facing. I will be selling the He and keeping 
my /// and, of course, the Macintosh. I have a great deal of 
software for the /// as well as five years' worth of letters, files, 
etc., so the /// has become an invaluable part of my life. The 
main problem parting with the lie presents is that I have been 
using the "Dollars & Sense" program to keep track of my 
personal finances. I would like to continue using that program in 
the future but on the ///. However, running the /// in emulation 
results in a 40 column display, which is far less than satisfactory 
to say the least. 

To date, I have only come up with one solution to my problem. 
Apple put me in touch with a firm in Utah, Sun Systems 
Remarketing, which offered to sell me a Titan /// + He card 
which would allow my /// to run either He or /// software 
interchangeably, complete with 80 column display. This sounds 
pretty good, but I'd like to hear whether you have any other ideas 
as to how I can solve this problem or if you have any experience 
with this card. 

I am looking forward to your reply. 

W.R. Bamett 
Oakland, CA 

Answering your question about the Titan III + He card, that is 
the only way to do what you want to do. Based on reports we've 
received from users it is a good card and Sun Systems Remar- 
keting, from our experience, provides proper user support. The 
only problems we foresee with the card is that is uses two 
precious slots in your III and does not allow the Mouse Text 
character set. 

You may have already discovered that some of your other lie 
programs will not run at all on the III, even in emulation mode. 
This is because some of those programs require that the Ill's 
processor contain a special chip, the 65C02. This chip is sold by 
Sun Systems Remarketing and is easy to install. It may be wise 
for you to inquire about it. 

For Your Information 

In response to your column in the January 1987 issue of ON 
THREE, I have two points to make. 

First, there is a card, the "Apple Turnover," for the IBM which 
allows it to read and write Apple II and Apple /// files (SOS files 
cannot have subdirectories). I have only used it to convert DOS 
3.3 and SOS files to PCDOS, but it works fine for that. The 
documentation says that it can convert VisiCalc files to Lotus 
1,2,3 and they sell an inexpensive additional program that can 
convert Apple hi-res graphics to PCDOS color graphics. The 
card is, or was, available from: 

Vertex Systems 

6022 W. Pico Boulevard 

Suite 3 

Los Angeles, CA 90035 

Second, there is indeed a fast copy program called "Copy ///" for 
the Apple /// that copies the entire disk into memory. It can also 
copy Apple II DOS 3.3 disks in native mode if they have the 
volume number one. It works very nicely and would be a real 
savior for someone temporarily or permanently without a second 
disk drive. 

H.E. Freeh, m ^ 

Santa Barbara, CA 

In this issue is an article titled "Copy III" written by Edward N. 
Gooding, Sr. In his informative and entertaining review of the 
program, he lists two places from which it may be obtained. 

NOTE: I published the above reference to Vertex Systems' "Ap- 
ple Turnover" without being able to confirm that the company is 
still in business and located at that address. I did this because 
some ON THREE reader may be able to obtain a copy second- 
hand and should be aware that the program exists. A wise 
consumer should always be cognizant of his or her alternatives. 



::'o;:.::.°t:^ee oz:])::£1 ::.:mie> 

(800) 443-8877'dDimnMi 

(800) 331-1418 

ON THREE April, 1987 


Call Three: Hot Line/Apple /// User Groups 

If you want to meet other Apple /// owners and exchange ideas, contact one of the user groups listed below. If you recently formed a group, know of one not 
listed here or have updated iniformation about a group already listed, please contact ON THREE and we will include your information in this section, no charge. 

Texas (cont.) 

Houston Area Apple Users Group 

(Apple /// Division) 
P.ofBox 610150 
Houston, TX 77063 
(713) 480-5690 or 974-5153 


Chanottsville Apple ///User Group 
216 Turkey Ridge Road 
CharlottsvUle^VX 22901 


Sacramento Apple ///User Group 
1433 Elsdon Circle 
CarmichaeLCA 95608 

Orange County Apple /// 

User Group 
22501 Eloise Avenue 
El Toro. CA 92630 

LA-So. Bay Apple /// Users Group 
P.O. Box 432 

Redondo BVeach, CA 90277 
(213) 316-7738 

Apple ///Users of Northsiii CA 
220 Redwood Highway #184 
Mill Valley. CA 9494r 

International Apple Core 

Apple/// 5.1.6: 
908 George Street 
Santa Qara, CA 95054 
(408) 121-1652 


Apples British Columbia 
Computer Society 
Apple?// SIG 

P.t). Box 80569. Bumaby. B.C. 
Canada. V5H 3X9 

The Astronic Qub 
1453 Highbush Trail 
Pickering. Ontario 
Canada LIV 1N6 
(416) 839-7779 


Colorado Apple Three User Group 
P.O. Box 3155. Englewood. CO%0112 


Apple /// Society of So. Connecticut 
34 Bun- School Road 
Westport Cr 06880 


Sarasota Apple /// User Group 
c/o Con5)utcr Cinter 
909 S , Tamiami Trail 
Nokomis.FL 33555 


Atlanta ///Society 
385 Saddle Lake Drive 
Roswell.GA 30076 


TAU c/o Lavona Rann 
1113 Wheaton Oaks Drive 
Wheaton,IL 60187 


Kansas City Apjde /// Users Group 
5533 Granada 
RoelandPartKS 66205 


So. Maine Aprie Users Group 
Casco St.. Freeport. ME 04(63 
(207) 865-4761. ext. 2249 


Apple /// S.I.G. Chairman 
Washington Apjde Pi 
8227 Woodmont Ave. #201 
Bethesda.MD 20814 
(301) 654-8060 


Miiuiesota Apple Corps User Group 
P.O. Box 796 
Hopkins. MN 55343 

New Jersey 

North Jersey Apple /// Users Group 
do Roger T. Richardson 
P.O.Box 251 
Allamuchy_,NJ 07820 
(201) 852-t710 

North Carolina 

North Carolina Apiplc/// User Group 
2609 North Duke St. #1 03 
Durham, NC 27704 


Cincinnati Apple /// User Group 
5242 Horizonvue Drive 
Cincinnati. OH 45239 
(513) 542rVl46 

Apple Dayton - Apple ///S.I.G. 
P.r). Box 1666 "^ 
Fairbom. OH 45324-7666 
(513) 879-5895 


Oregon Apple /// Users Group 
1 001 S .W.5xh Ave. #2000 
Portiand, OR 97204 
(503) 645-6789 


Apple /// Users Belgium/Netherlands 
^o H. Van der Straeten. Vestinglaan 49 
2580 Sint-Katclijnc-Waver 
(015) 205328 

Overseas (cont.) 

Apple User (jroup Europe e.V. 
West Germany 
0049-6195-7 3917 

Apple /// User Group BelgiunV 

c/o J. Worctshofer 
(janzerikweerd 22 
NL-6229 TG Maastricht 
The Netherlands 

British Apple Systems User Group 

(BASUG) Apple ///S.I.G. 
P.O. Box 174 

Watford Herts. England WD2 6NF 
0727 73390/72728 

Le Qub Apple 

43 Avenue oe la Grande- Armee 

751 16 Paris. France 

Ap|de /// User Group 

do Canberra Accounting Services 

P.O. Box 42 

Duffy A.C.T. 2611 



Apple Corps of Dallas 
Aj^]c /// SA.G. 
P.O. Box 5537 
Richardson, TX 75080 

River City Apple Corps /// S.I.G. 

Austin, TX 78711 

(804) 642r56i5 

Greater Tidewater Apple /// 

User (jroup 
Route 2j Box 216 
Hayes, Va 23072 
(804) 642-5655 

or 898-3500. ext. 2671 

Apple THREE Group International 
c/o H. Joseph Dolwowolski 
P.O. Box 913 
LangleyAFB^VA 23665 

The Call Three: Hot Line is a service whereby Apple /// users with questions can call 
an area number for answers. The individuals answering your calls are fellow Apple /// 
users who volunteered to help those in need over some of the rough spots. They are 
not compensated for this service, so we owe them a resounding "three cheers" for their 
kindness and generosity. 

If you are willing and able to aid others by answering questions, please write to ON 
THREE and provide the necessary information. If you have questions, feel free to call 
our consultants listed below. Please observe the calling hours shown and, before 
placing a call, double-check the time zone so you don't inadvertantly awaken someone! 
No other restrictions apply to this service. 

For your reference, the accompanying table lists subjects and abbreviations used in the 
"Subjects" column of the consultant listing. 




Assembly Lang. 

Business Basic 




Data Base 





























/// E-Z Pieces 

Word Proc. 














CoviUe Woodbum 

Ken Johnson 

Don Loosli 

Hany T. Hanson 

Edward N. Gooding, Sr. 

Jeff Fritz 

Al Johnston 

Paul Sanchez 

R.B. Thompson 

J. Donald Glenn 

Scott Weddel 

Jim Ferencak 

Paul Thomas 

Earl T. Brelje 
Ron Maupin 
Rodney Hendricks 
Terri Wiles 
William Prince 
Karl La Rue 
Pat Holwagner 
Vincent F. Latona 
Dennis R. Cohen 

KeUy C. McGrew 
Larry E. Kalland 
H. Van der Straeten 
Amaud Trache 

J. Woretshofer 





























(603) 863-5590 
(413) 536-7502 
(313) 626-3848 
(201) 467-0712 
(804) 747-8751 
(606) 353-9493 
(904) 739-1600 
(305) 266-5965 
(919) 787-1703 
(402) 291-9177 
(402) 572-7543 
(312) 599-7505 
(601) 494-8736 

(612) 455-6405 
(512) 280-0144 
(214) 581-0524 
(303) 850-7472 
(503) 254-6465 
(509) 582-6459 
(415) 433-2323 
(818) 703-0330 
(818) 956-8559 

(206) 943-8533 
(907) 272-4968 
(015) 205328 
21 03 04 21 

Netherlands 043-611704 

Days Hours Zone Subjects 

M,Tu,Th,F 7-8pm Eastern BB,CT,GE,GRJVn,QU,WP 

Su-Sa 6-9pm Eastem BB,PA>ID,WP>II 

M-F 9am-5pm Eastem GE,WP,SS,DB 

M-F 6-9pm Eastem GE,PA,BB,CT 

Su-Sa 6-9pm Eastem CO,SS,PRJVID,CT 

M-Sa 8-1 1pm Eastem BB,DB,GE,MI,SS.TC,EP 

M-F 9am-6pm Eastern GE 

Su-Sa 10am-4pm Eastem SS,PR,CT 

Su-Sa lOam-lOpm Eastern BB,DB,GE,SS,WP 

Su-Th 7- 10pm Central GE 

Su-Sa 4- 10pm Central GE,TC 

M-F 10am-5pm Central GE,EP,DB 

Su-Sa 6-lOpm Central GE,AC,BB.CP.DB,n.MI,MD.PA.PR. 


M-F 4-9pm Central CT,DB,WP,GE, Quick File, Omnis 3 

Su-Sa 8am-10pm Central AL.CO,CT,EPJVlD,PA,QU,SS.TC,WP 

Su^a 6-9pm Central DB,EP,GE,MD,QU,SO,SS,TC,WP 

Su-Sa 10am -6pm Mountain PA 

M-F 9am-4pm Pacific GR,TC, Corvus 

F-Su 6- 10pm Pacific MD,GE,EP,WP,TC.SS,CP 

M-F 10am-6pm Pacific GE,SS,WP,CT,DB,SU.AE,EP 

M-F 9am-5pm Pacific GE,WP.BB,SS,AE 

Su lOam-lOpm Pacific GE,PA>lU,WP.DB,SO 

M-F 7-9pm 

Sa 12n-6pm 

Su-M,Th-Sa 7-9pm Pacific DB,GR.SS,PR>1D,CT 

Su-Sa 12n-l 1pm Alaska AC, CT, GE, SS. EP, WP 

Su-Sa 7- 10pm Europe BB.CT,DB.GE,PA,PR,SS 

Sa-Su 10am-7pm Europe AC,BB,DB.AE,n,GR.MD,PR,SS.TC,EP 

and all ON THREE products 

Su-Sa 9-12 am Europe CT,FO,GE,PA,QU,SO,WP.AE,EP 


April, 1987 ON THREE 


ON THREE Presents. . . 


Now is the Time 
for a reai-time ciocic 

Believe it or not, a lot of folks have plain 
forgotten [or never knew) that the Apple /// 
was designed to operate with a built-in clock 
and that, with a clock chip installed, SOS 
will automatically time stamp and date all 
file saves. 

When the Apple /// was first released, the 
supplier of Apple's clock chips could not 
supply a working clock. As a result, the /// 
was supplied without a clock of any kind. 
Now maybe you are wondering when you 
list a disk directory, how the time and date 
magically appears. 

Not too long ago ON THREE developed a 
clock for the Apple /// which plugs in right 
where the never-released Apple clock was 
supposed to go, and for just $49.95 plus 
$3.00 shipping and handling, this easy to 
install, SOS-compatible clock can be yours. 
It comes with comprehensive instructions 
and ON THREE'S limited six-month war- 
ranty and does not use any of your precious 

With an ON THREE O'clock installed, whenever you save or modify any type of file, the current 
time and date will be added to the directory listing so you can always tell at a glance which file you last 
worked on, and when. But that's not all. Business Basic has two reserved variables, DATE$ and 
TIME$, which return, respectively, the current date and time to your BASIC program. These reserved 
variables can then be used whenever you want to print the date and/or time in a BASIC 

Special Combination Offer 

There's a great deal more you can do with ON THREE'S ON THREE O'clock if you also have our 
Desktop Manager. Whenever you want, you can display the current date and time on the screen with 
one keypress. Since this is a background function, you can be word processing with AppleWriter or 
entering data into VisiCalc, and with one keystroke you can obtain updated time information. In addition, 
you can use the Desktop Manager's Appointment Calendar to enter items you want to be reminded of 
and, like magic, when the time comes, no matter what you are doing, a message will appear on your 
screen to gently chide you via the Desktop Manager to make that phone call now, etc. 

Now The Appointment Calendar is not the only feature of the Desktop Manager, you can read 
about the Calculator, the Notepad, and the others elsewhere, but since the Desktop Manager requires 
a clock, we want to offer you a money-saving deal. Purchased together, you can get the ON THREE 
O'clock and the Desktop Manager for only $173.95 plus $8.00 shipping and handling. Now is the time 
to take advantage of this special offer. 

Desktop Manager/ON THREE O'Clock Combo 

$165a95 plus $8.00 shipping and handling 


plus $3.00 
shipping and 



Permit No. 90 
Ventura, CA 

ON THftCe Presents... 

The Desktop Manager 

This is the most complete and sophisticated desk accessory program ever written! Finally you can 
unclutter your desk the Desktop Manager way. The Desktop Manager places all of the desk accessory utilities 
you need - appointment calendar, note pad and calculator -- withm every program you own, so you can use 
them as if they were a part of your original programs. While you are using your program, you cannot see the 
Desktop Manager. However, by pressing only two keys the Desktop Manager menu appears, ready for your 
use from within any application! 

While word processing, have you ever needed to multiply two numbers? Or have you suddenly remem- 
bered while in the middle of a spreadsheet the name of that stock your broker suggested, but have no pen or 
paper nearby to jot it down? Perhaps you've forgotten your spouse's birthday agam, although you did write 
the date on a piece of paper you keep m your desk. Why not mcrease your productivity and efficiency while 
you clear your work area of that old-fashioned calculator, pens and paper scraps, and unnoticeable apppoint- 
ment calendar? With the help of ON THREE'S Desktop Manager, you can do all this and more. 

From within any program, two keypresses override and freeze your current application and display a 
window containing the Desktop Manager's main menu. Now you have the power of all of the Desktop 
Manager's options at your command. Simply select one of the following standard Desktop Manager features: 

Note Pad - This handy tool has multi- 
ple pages per note, word wrap, auto- 
matic repagination, pick up and paste, 
and many other features usually found 
only in a word processing program. On- 
liae help screens (a standard Desktop 
Manager feature) make using the Note 
Pad effortless as well as convenient. 

Appointment Calendar 
17 Mar 87 6:13:01 PM 

You have 2 appointments 
scheduled for today. 

8:00 AM 9:04 PM 


Note Pad 

c5A =>Add Another Note 
(5B =>Backs Up to Previous Note 
(5N =>Moves to the Next Note 
(5S =>Shows Note Selection Menu 

(Help Provided in Menu) 
(5R =>Allow Renaming Active Note 
(5F => Find Text Within Note 
6M =5Moves the Note Pad Window 

(Pressing Escape Will 
Restore Window Contents) 














































Open Apple ? Key For Help. 

MARCH 1987 

Appointment Calendar - Set multi- 
ple appointments daily through Decem- 
ber 31, 1999. As your appointment is 
due, a reminder appears on your screen 
regardless of what application you're 
using. The daily and weekly appoint- 
ments are shown at a glance and, as 
with all Desktop Manager options, help 
screens are only two keystrokes away. 

Calculator - A powerful electronic 
workhorse, the Calculator has full 16- 
digit accuracy and advanced functions 
such as SIN, COS, TAN, LOG's, x to a 
power, square root pi, memory and base 
conversions in addition to the basic add, 
subtract, multiply and divide functions. 
Also, you can invoke a simulated paper 
tape for printing later or pasting into 
another document. 


— 1 

[Hip] [Prt] [Tap] [CE ] [CLR] 

[Sin] [Co»] [Tan] [?!][•] 

[Log] [Ln ] [x-y] [Sqt] [Bin] 

[ D ] [ E ] [ F ] [D«g] [D«c] 

[ A ] [ B ] [ C ] [Rad] [Hax] 

[ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ / ] [M+ ] 

[ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ * ] [M- ] 

[ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ - ] [RM ] 

[ ] [+/-] [ . ][ + ][-]